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PRESIDENCY 2004:



LIBERTARIAN PARTY: THE "NOT RUNNING"
& FORMER CANDIDATES LIST

If they're Libertarians and they have genuinely disclaimed any interest in a 2004 White House bid, if draft efforts on their behalf were aborted, or if they were unsuccessful candidates for LP Presidential nomination, they've been moved down from our P2004: The Libertarians page to this page.


"Politics1 has done a tremendous job in listing the potential Libertarian candidates
for President for 2004."
-- Art Olivier, 2000 LP Nominee for Vice President


Sterling Allan Sterling D. Allan (Utah)

Sterling Allan was a late and brief entrant into LP Presidential contest. Allan -- a former activist in the Independent American Party of Utah (and an IAP nominee for State House in 1990) -- could essentially be described as a theocratic candidate. Of course, that would be within his own vision of what God is mandating as a self-described "Davidic Servant." From his various campaign websites, Allan is dedicated to establishing "Zion," which he defines as "the gospel and government of God working in harmony for the improvement and sanctification of all things. The kingdom of heaven on earth." Where he gets a bit ... umm ... different is when he wrote that his own 2004 candidacy was "foretold in Alphabetics Bible Code." Born and raised as a Mormon, the LDS Church excommunicated Allan for "apostasy" (extremist beliefs related to his religious writings) in 1993. Since then, he has devoted nearly all his time to working to create his vision of God's Kingdom on Earth (and he also sells survivalist emergency supplies online). He withdrew from the LP contest in November 2003 to devote his energies instead to winning the nominations of the Constitution Party, the US Independent American Party and other conservative parties in order to run as a "fusion" candidate. He explained that he quit the LP race "because of their stance on social issues and lack of acknowledgement that a group of people willfully united takes on a life of its own and has rights." Allan later withdrew from those nomination races, too, and instead announced he would continue as an Independent write-in candidate in 2004.


Clyde Cleveland (Iowa) Clyde Cleveland

Real estate investor and venture capitalist Clyde Cleveland first gained national attention in 2002, as the Libertarian nominee for Iowa Governor. He ran a professional campaign, garnered some positive media stories, won the endorsement of the Natural Law Party (NLP), and captured 13,000 votes (4th place - 1%). In fact, his entire '02 statewide LP-NLP fusion ticket was a combination of activists from the two parties. Cleveland himself wedded the two sometimes differing ideologies with his laissez faire and anti-tax economic views plus his "non-coercive" pro-environment and anti-agricultural genetic engineering views -- a philosophy he describes as "Green and Free." Cleveland let LP activists know in late 2003 that he planned to officially enter the LP Presidential contest sometime in early 2004. However, in January 2004, Cleveland sent supporters and email indicating that he decided to withdraw from the race. Interestingly, Cleveland's 2002 Lieutenant Governor runningmate -- businessman and university instructor Rich Campagna -- won the LP nomination for Vice President in 2004. A fact to ponder: Cleveland lives in Fairfield -- the small Iowa town that is the national headquarters of the Natural Law Party and all their related Maharishi think tanks, colleges, seminars, etc. Does this mean that Cleveland is a follower of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and his purported cult movement ... or is he just someone who happens to live in the same small town into which all those NLP/Maharishi folks all settled?


Michael Cloud Michael Cloud (Massachusetts)

Michael Cloud -- a prominent LP fundraiser, motivational speaker, former US Senate and congressional candidate, and national party "insider" closely linked with the Harry Browne faction -- has been active in the LP since the 1970s. Cloud -- who was originally named Michael Emerling -- legally changed his name in the 1990s. After intially expressing some interest in running, Cloud eventually decided to not seek the 2004 LP Presidential nomination. By email, Cloud let some LP leaders know of his decision in early 2003. Instead, his longtime girlfriend Carla Howell (below) appeared to be a potential candidate for the LP nomination -- but she also disclaimed interest a few months after Cloud made his decision not to run.


Jeffrey Diket (Louisiana) Jeffrey Diket

Jeff Diket is one candidate who clearly dislikes the "Libertarian Party is Pro-Choice on Everything" buttons sold on the national party's website. Diket -- a social conservative seemingly at odds with much of the LP's views -- announced his candidacy for the LP Presidential nomination in April 2003. Diket told the LP News he is running as a "pro-life, anti-communist" candidate. Diket said he will focus his campaign on "the abortion issue, limitation of government through financial means, foreign policy, and the drug war." He also is staunchly pro-gun rights and opposed to the "schemes of such New World Order lobbying groups as the Trilateral Commission and the Council on Foreign Relations." In what is clearly a slap at the party's laissez faire embrace of the gay community, Diket vows that he will "seek the support of advocates of family values instead of deviates." Diket also says that he supports "the use of drugs to cure diseases instead of catering to addicts" -- but he does endorse the legalization of all drugs. He attacks the two major parties as nominating Presidential candidates who are typically "Socialist Candidate A and Socialist Candidate B." Diket, 57 and legally blind, holds a master's degree in medieval history and is a freelance jazz musician in New Orleans. He was the previously the Vice Chair of the Louisiana LP and was their 1998 nominee for US Senator (7th place - 0.3%). Diket -- who was also featured on Pat Buchanan's campaign website in 2000 -- also touts himself as a member of the ultra-conservative John Birch Society. Diket appeared on the LP Presidential primary ballot in Missouri in February 2004, finishing last place with 8% (155 votes).


Don Gorman Don Gorman (New Hampshire)

Don Gorman, the owner of a small chimney sweep business, was first elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in the 1992. He served two terms in the state legislature before being defeated for re-election in 1996. In the House, Gorman regularly attacked federal mandates, expansive police powers and big government. A longtime Libertarian Party activist, the party named him as the Most Effective Elected Libertarian at the 1996 National Convention. While Gorman emerged as Harry Browne's leading opponent for 2000 LP nomination, he entered the race late and raised little money. Gorman finished in second place at the 2000 LP National Convention with 166 delegate votes (19%) -- versus 56% for nominee Browne. Since 2000, Gorman has been operating a "campaign school" for LP candidates. Some party activists thought Gorman would run again in 2004. However, the lack of any interest expressed by Gorman ended any interest in his making a second run for the nomination in 2004.


Judge James P. "Jim" Gray (California) Jim Gray

California Superior Court Judge Jim Gray hinted a speech in late 2002 to the California LP Convention that he was considering running for President in 2004. Gray is a staunch advocate for drug legalization -- and has written numerous articles and a book on why he believes the "War on Drugs" is a total failure. Gray was appointed to the Santa Ana Municipal Court in 1983 by Governor George Deukmejian (R-CA). In 1989, Deukmejian elevated Gray to the Superior Court -- the highest level trial court in the California -- where Gray still presides today. As a judge, Gray has tried innovative approaches (like having teens "try" teens for certain crimes, and making drunk drivers listen to stories told by various drunk driving victims). Gray is a former Peace Corps volunteer, a decorated Vietnam War veteran, and a former federal prosecutor. In July 2003, Gray decided to run for US Senate in 2004 instead of President.


Julian Heicklen Julian P. Heicklen (Pennsylvania)

Dr. Julian Heicklen is best known as an ardent marijuana legalization activist. A retired chemistry professor at Penn State University, Heicklen was the first candidate to officially announce (in mid-2002) for the 2004 LP nomination. And, in early 2003, he became the first announced LP candidate to quit the race. At Penn State, the colorful Heicklen -- who calls the War on Drugs "ridiculous" -- organized weekly "Marijuana Smoke Outs". He has publicly smoked marijuana to defy the Drug War, sued various government agencies for violating the Constitution, participated in non-violent sit-ins, and been arrested many times for defying restrictions on free speech and public assembly. He hoped to organize a grassroots effort to win the nomination, but found the task too daunting. Another Heicklen link is Dr. Julian Heicklen, Freedom Fighter (marijuana legalization site)..


Barry J. Hess II (Arizona) Barry Hess

A former conservative Republican, Barry Hess joined the Libertarian Party nearly a decade ago because he realized that "the purpose of our government is administration -- not intervention." He was a candidate for the LP Presidential nomination in 2000. His three main issues were the privatization of Social Security, reducing the size of the federal government by 30% and eliminating all federal involvement in public education. Part of his government reduction plan includes the "complete elimination of the taxes on personal earnings, gifts and estates." Unlike typical LP candidates -- who view the LP nomination as a platform to win voters over to the libertarian philosophy -- Hess tried to excite LP activists by saying he would win as President if nominated. Ultimately, he finished in fourth place at the 2000 LP National Convention with 53 delegate votes (6%). He went on to be the LP nominee for US Senate in 2000 and for Governor in 2002. During his 2002 campaign, the state's leading newspaper wrote that Hess "is a serious candidate with well-developed free-market ideas ... [and] represents the principles of Libertarian philosophy in his dedication to individual rights." Hess owns a small water treatment service company and another company named Empirico that sells marble and granite religious items. Hess initially told LP activists he was thinking about another run for President in 2004 -- but in May 2003 he sent out an email notice that he would not run for President, but would instead run for Governor again in 2006.


Dave Hollist David L. "Dave" Hollist (California)

David Hollist -- a bus driver, former Secretary of the San Bernadino County Libertarian Party, and a 1998 LP Congressional nominee -- was a LP Presidential hopeful for 2000. Hollist never had any real chance to win the Libertarian Party's P2000 nomination -- but he took his underdog fight all the way to the convention and finished in fifth place with 8 delegate votes (1%). Now he's back making a second -- and nearly invisible -- run for President in 2004. His campaign site features a very detailed (and growing) campaign booklet outlining his positions. "If you vote for me to become the President, I will work to protect all Americans from anyone who tries to rob us. I will introduce contract insurance, which is a way that we can operate our government without taxation. During the last century, Americans eliminated the disease of slavery from our beautiful nation. This century, we should eliminate taxes," said Hollist. An additional Hollist link is Hollist for President 2000 (San Bernadino County LP site).


Jacob G. "Bumper" Hornberger (Virginia) Jacob Hornberger

Jacob "Bumper" Hornberger -- a libertarian ideologue, attorney, founder of the Future of Freedom Foundation think tank, and the keynote speaker at the 1996 LP National Convention -- was originally viewed as Harry Browne's most serious rival for the 2000 LP nomination. He withdrew from the Presidential race after just one month of campaigning in mid-1999, explaining that his candidacy was taking too much time away from his responsibilities as head of the FFF. Instead, Hornberger spent the next year diligently running a stealth campaign to derail Browne's campaign by hurling a serious of financial misconduct allegations at Browne, his campaign and various LP national staff members. The hostile activity because so damaging to Browne's fundraising activites that it nearly caused Browne to quit the race in Spring 2000. In a surprise move, Hornberger jumped back into the race just days before the start of the LP National Convention. His late re-entry only served to further divide the anti-Browne vote -- and Hornberger finished in a distant third place with 120 delegate votes (13%). Hornberger's bitter split with the Browne-faction of the LP leadership was evident in 2002 when Hornberger ran for US Senate. He entered the race as the Libertarian candidate -- but soon after agreed to run instead as an Independent when the state LP (which was closely tied to the national LP leadership) demanded that he not run under the Libertarian banner. For much of 1999-2002, Hornberger kept another site online -- jacobghornberger.com -- as an archive of articles detailing financial mismanagement and serious ethical problems within the national LP leadership (although the site was again off-line when we last checked). Hornberger seems to have washed his hands of the LP and walked away from the party entirely -- although he may return someday if George Phillies and the "reformers" win control of the national party. But, for 2004, he clearly burned all his bridges with the LP.


Carla Howell Carla Howell (Massachusetts)

Carla Howell has become a familiar face to Massachusetts voters through her frequent campaigns for statewide office. She was the LP nominee for State Auditor in 1998 (3rd - 6% -- and earning the LP "major party" status in the state), for US Senate in 2000 (3rd - 12%), and for Governor in 2002 (4th - 1%). And -- as far as LP candidates go -- Howell has performed very well (except in 2002). She also maintains a close relationship with the national LP leadership -- and her longtime boyfriend is Michael Cloud (a LP fundraiser, former US Senate candidate, and national party "insider" closely linked with the Harry Browne faction). Because of Cloud's strong influence, the party did major fundraising work on behalf of Howell's 2000 and 2002 candidacies, and promoted her extensively. While there is no sign yet of a Howell for President campaign, many within the LP expect she will enter the race. Her campaign slogan -- used in each of her races -- is "Small government is beautiful." Howell, 48, holds an MBA degree and is a Management Consultant. She has also been involved extensively in various LP state ballot initiatives (anti-tax, etc.) and previously served as State LP Chair. Like most in the party, Howell is staunchly anti-tax and pro-gun rights -- the top two concerns she emphasized in her 2002 campaign. If she entered the race, Howell would likely have been the favored candidate of the Browne faction within the LP. However, she announced via email in September 2003 that she would not enter the Presidential contest.


Kenneth V. "Ken" Krawchuk (Pennsylvania) Ken Krawchuk

Ken Krawchuk, 50, is a computer engineer, freelance writer, and the Pennsylvania LP State Chairman. He made an unsuccessful bid for the LP Vice Presidential nomination at the 2000 national convention. Krawchuk's Vice Presidential campaign seemed to largely be for the purpose of raising his national profile within the party. He withdrew from the VP race after finishing in a distant third place with 9% (70 delegate votes) on the first ballot. Krawchuk is also a frequent LP candidate for office. His past LP candidacies include: Governor in 1998 and 2002, Congress in 2000, State Representative in 1994, and for various local offices in 1995, 1997 and 2001. In his 1998 race, he earned 1.1% of the vote -- making him the first LP statewide candidate in Pennsylvania to break the 1% mark. After initially announcing his candidacy for the LP Presidential nomination in 2002, he withdrew from the race in May 2003 because of "professional obligations." Krawchuk later emailed Politics1 to explain that his past VP and Presidential runs were largely intended to raise his profile within the LP for his statewide runs in Pennsylvania (presumably to help him with fundraising, etc.). Other related links are Draft Committee to Nominate Ken Krawchuk and the old Krawchuk for Congress 2000 site


Kip Lee Kip Lee (California)

Kip Lee unsuccessfully sought the LP Presidential nomination in 1996 and 2000, finishing at the very back of the pack both times at the national convention. He was briefly back for a third futile run in 2004 -- but dropped out in September 2002. Lee, a US Navy veteran, holds an A.A. degree in General Studies and describes his religion as "New Age." Although he ran as a Libertarian, two-thirds of Lee's platform (quoted here in Lee's own words) was at odds with the LP's traditional views: "Abolish the monetary system; make education free; create free communications and housing." Free?? Lee should take note of the folksy old LP slogan: "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch."


Gail Lightfoot (California) Gail Lightfoot

Retired nurse Gail Lightfoot is a longtime LP activist and frequent candidate for office. A former LP State Chair, Lightfoot was also a prominent supporter of Don Gorman's campaign for the LP Presidential nomination in 2000. As a result of her efforts in the Gorman campaign, she decided to make a last-minute bid for Vice President at the 2000 LP National Convention. However, Lightfoot withdrew from the VP race during the nominating speeches after making her address to the convention. While she has run for office as a LP nominee many times, her two most recent races were for US Senate in 2000 and Secretary of State in 2002. There had been some speculation that Lightfoot may run for President but -- in February 2003 -- she decided she would instead run for US Senate in 2004 (note: she went on to lose the primary).


Gary Nolan Gary Nolan (Ohio)

Radio talk show host Gary Nolan was the initial frontrunner for the LP Presidential nomination. Starting as a local radio host over a decade ago, his show picked up a decent audience. By the time he resigned from radio program to run for President, his "Nolan at Night" show was carried on 65 Radio America network affiliates around the nation. A former Republican, he joined the LP in 1999. Nolan was realistic about the purpose of his campaign: "My goal is to be able to communicate [to voters] what Libertarians can do for the country, in such a away that people get interested in the party and join the party." On the issues, Nolan proposed that federal spending be dramatically reduced over the next four years so that the combined tax burden from all levels of government does not exceed 25%. He wanted to repeal all the security measures imposed after 9-11 in order to "immediately restore of our full civil liberties." Nolan also proposed that an individual retirement account be established for every American, consisting of their prior Social Security contributions, funded with Treasury bills of appropriate maturities. Former LP National Executive Director Steve Dasbach and current LP National Treasurer Bill Redpath endorsed Nolan, along with other prominent LP activists. He competed in the California and Missouri Presidential primary ballots. In a major surprise, Nolan finished third place at the LP Presidential Nominating Convention on the first and second ballots in May 2004 -- and threw his support to Michael Badnarik on the third ballot (which gave Badnarik the nomination).


Arthur "Art" Olivier (California) Art Olivier

Art Olivier was the LP nominee for Vice President in 2000. He is also the former Mayor of Bellflower, a Los Angeles suburb with 72,000 residents. During his five years on the City Council (1994-99), Olivier privatized the city's tree trimming, crossing guards, street cleaning and the Building Department services and eliminated the city's lighting tax assessment. Olivier, 45, was an engineer with Boeing, before recently becoming a realtor. He also works as a freelance web site developer. He is married and has four children. In 2002, Olivier agreed to run as the LP's write-in replacement nominee for Governor -- after the state LP disavowed the official nominee for embarrassing antics -- but Olivier finished far behind the discredited LP nominee. Olivier emailed Politics1 in March 2003 to say he would not run for President. "I feel we need a more accomplished and well known candidate" in 2004, he wrote.


Ron Paul Congressman Ron Paul (R-Texas)

Dr. Ron Paul -- a physician and GOP Congressman from Texas -- was the Libertarian nominee for President in 1988 (432,000 votes). He's known in Washington as "Doctor No" for his consistent no votes against nearly everything (against approving the budget, against new federal programs, against drug laws, against regulatory laws -- even against minting a commemorative congressional medal to present to the Pope on his US visit). Although still very friendly towards the LP, Paul formally rejoined the GOP in the mid-1990s. Some activists from the Libertarian Party and Reform Party tried to form a "Draft Paul" campaign to encourage Paul to make a "fusion" run for the 2000 nominations of both parties. Paul quickly responded that he was flattered but had no interest in ever again running for President. Undeterred by Paul's statement, the Draft Paul campaign -- linked above -- was launched. The Draft Paul campaign organizers conceded in November 1999 that Paul will not run in 2000 -- so they then began touting him as a 2004 draft candidate. However, at a 2002 LP event, Paul said he would not consider running ever again again for President. As in 2000, there was a zero percent chance that Paul would enter the 2004 LP race. However, he was a speaker at the 2004 Libertarian National Convention. Additional Paul links include Ron Paul for Congress (authorized campaign site) and the Congressman Ron Paul (official government site).


N. Ruben Perez (Texas) Ruben Perez

Ruben Perez was the 2002 LP candidate for Texas State Railroad Commissioner and the 2000 Reform Party nominee for the same office -- earning over 110,000 votes in his 2002 run. Interestingly, he was listed on the ballot as Nazirite R. Flores Perez in both of his past Texas runs. Perez -- a maintenance technician and Vietnam War veteran -- filed FEC paperwork to run as a Libertarian for President in 2004. He subsequently appeared on the LP Presidential primary ballot in Missouri in February 2004, finishing third place with 9% (167 votes). In a sign that Perez never really expected to be the LP Presidential nominee, two months before the national convention he became the LP nominee for Congress in the Texas CD-23 race in 2004.


George Phillies George D.J. Phillies (Massachusetts)

Physics Professor George Phillies has been active in the "reform" movement within the LP for the past few years. Running on a "Clean Slate" platform -- criticizing the alleged insider deals involving party donations and consulting contracts -- Phillies was an unsuccessful candidate for LP National Chair in 2002 (3rd place - 22%). He briefly flirted with making a run for the 2004 LP Presidential nomination -- but abandoned the campaign in October 2003. Phillies, who earned his doctorate in physics from MIT, is a former Army Reserve enlisted man and a former Republican. He joined the LP in the late 1980s. "I am not a social conservative. When George [H.W.] Bush attached himself to the 'Christian Right' [in 1988], he took the Republican Party his way and I went my way," explained Phillies. He quickly became active in he LP, rising to the position of State LP Executive Director by 1996. He also was the LP nominee for US Senator in 1996 and for Congress in 1998. In addition to Phillies' personal web site (linked above), other related links are Central Massachusetts Liberty Coalition (Phillies' LP reform group), LP News: Phillies for LP National Chair 2002 (profile), and Third Millenium Publishing: George Phillies (Phillies' book publisher).


Mike Ross (Arizona)

Mike Ross was an angry, protest candidate for the LP nomination. Who was he protesting against? Just about everyone and everything! Tops on the list was the Harry Browne faction that still dominates the party nationwide -- particularly the national leadership and staff. "In his several bids for President as a Libertarian it seems like [Browne's] main goal is to pocket money he takes from Libertarians which he tells will be used to make commericals which are never made. Most of this can be documented in articles in Liberty Magazine. I don't want your money," explained Ross. Perhaps no one told him Browne wasn't running again in 2004. Next on the Ross hate list was a Phoenix area insurance agency owner who "has been making up lies about me and telling people that I am a government snitch." Ross' website also attacks one LP activist as "a scum bag" ... refers to the current leadership of the Arizona LP as "idiots" ... calls a mayoral candidate "a Nazi" ... and people who believe in God ("I'm an atheist ... I don't give a rats ass what god you worship as long as you don't try to use the force of government to force it on someone else"). Ross -- on issues -- is part of the extremist "no compromise" wing of the party: "I'm more of an Anarchist Libertarian then a Libertarian. My position is we should eliminate the government all together." Why all the anger? The answer: Ross was on the state governing board of the old Arizona LP group was disaffiliated and disavowed by the national party when they recognized another group instead as the official affiliate (and a court later ratified the action). Ross previously ran as a write-in candidate for Arizona Governor in the 2002 primary against a candidate backed by the faction that won control of the state party.


Aaron Russo (California) Aaron Russo

Colorful, bombastic and wealthy Hollywood movie producer Aaron Russo has flirted with political runs for office in recent years. Although a longtime supporter of the Libertarian Party, he ran as a libertarian (small-L) candidate for Nevada Governor in the 1998 Republican primary (garnering a decent 26% in the four-way race). Russo announced a second run in 2002 for Nevada Governor as the Libertarian Party candidate, but quit the race when he was diagnosed with cancer. Now -- after seemingly successful cancer treatments -- Russo made a splashy run for President in 2004. He began the race as an Independent, but officially jumped into the LP race in December 2003 (and secured primary ballot status for the California primary). In Hollywood, Russo produced such blockbusters as The Rose (1979) and Trading Places (1983) during his movie career. All in all, his movies earned six Oscars and two Golden Globe awards. As in his past runs, he made his strong support for legalizing medical marijuana a top concern. However, his central focus was what he decried as a post 9-11 reduction of individual freedom in the US. "We're being deceived, suckered into this indoctrination of the federal government which is leading toward a totalitarian country." He vowed to repeal the Patriot Act and was opposed to any discussion of reviving the military draft. Russo had a decent following within the party and used his personal resources to help finance the campaign. He narrowly finished first on both the first and second ballotd at the LP Presidential Nominating Convention in May 2004 -- but lost the nomination when a third place candidate Gary Nolan withdrew and threw his support to Michael Badnarik.


L. Neil Smith L. Neil Smith (Colorado)

L. Neil Smith, a published science fiction novelist with a libertarian ideological bent, was initially the subject of a draft campaign in 2000. Calling themselves the "Ad Hoc Conspiracy to Draft L. Neil Smith," they tried to generate support to convince Smith to run. Although the organizers initially wanted Smith to seek the Libertarian Party nomination, a cranky Smith first said he would rather run as an Independent (which a second pro-Smith group was proposing). Although a LP member, Smith said he would not likely seek the LP nod because "the clique that owns the party would still find an excuse to reject my candidacy." Instead, Smith told the draft organizers he would run for President as an Independent if they first collect 1,000,000 signatures of voters urging him to run. Later, Smith issued a new statement clarifying that he would agree to run as the LP nominee if his supporters could secure him the 2000 nomination. Smith also sent this message for the Draft Committee: Eventually, Smith actively sought the LP nomination -- and frontrunner Harry Browne slaughtered Smith in the California primary by a 71% to 9% vote, causing Smith to suspend his nascent campaign. Members of the renegade Arizona Libertarian Party -- who had long been feuding with the national LP leadership -- refused to recognize Browne as their nominee and instead gave their general election ballot line to a ticket of Smith and newspaper columnist Vin Suprynowicz of Nevada as the VP runningmate. Well, the same "Ad Hoc Conspiracy to Draft L. Neil Smith" (linked above) made another try again for the 2004 race ... Smith even provided a link to their site from his personal site ... but this time he put a fairly early end to the draft effort. In October 2003, he essentially ended the "Draft Smith" effort when he endorsed Michael Badnarik for the LP nomination. Additional Smith links include: Smith for President 2000 (former official site), LNeilSmith.com (Smith's personal site), and The Libertarian Enterprise (Smith's online newsletter).


FORMER VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES:

It is traditional in the Libertarian Party to announce early candidacies and actively seek the Vice Presidential nomination at the party's national nominating convention. Unlike the major parties, the LP nominee for President rarely has a real say in who is selected as the VP nominee. These were the announced Vice Presidential candidates who lost at the LP national convention: Eric Dondero (Texas), Scott Jameson (Texas) and Tamara Millay (Missouri). Charles Jay (Indiana) also sought to LP VP nomination, but withdrew to become the Presidential nominee of Utah's Personal Choice Party.


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