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Now that John Kerry is the Democratic nominee for President, we've moved ALL the other Democrats here. If they're Democrats they are (A) still running despite Kerry's delegate total, or they have either (B) genuinely disclaimed any interest in a 2004 White House bid, or (C) withdrawn from the race, or (D) draft campaigns on their behalf now appear inactive, or (E) they've shown no real campaign activity for a sustained period of time ... then they've been moved to this page.

Warren R. Ashe (Virginia)

From the information he filed with Project Vote Smart, Mr. Ashe appears to be one of the more ... umm ... eccentric candidates in the 2004 race. Ashe says he holds a doctorate degree from North Carolina State University. Then again, Ashe also claims to have been "President, United Nations, 1973-2003 ... Appointed President, United States White House, 1981-2003 ... Candidate, United States President, 2000 ... Vice President, West Wing - Carter Administration, 1977-1981 ... [and] Vice President, West Wing - Ford Administration, 1973-1977." He also claims to be a Navy veteran, an Army veteran AND an Air Force veteran. And he writes he owns a $40 million corporation, too. Yeah, right. We moved Ashe to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- he had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access.

Donald P. Award (Connecticut) Donald Paul Award

Donald Award, 40, described himself as an "environmental activist and grassroots lobbyist." An Air Force veteran, he has also been active in various peace and disarmament causes. He previously ran for President in 2000, but failed to secure ballot status in any primary states. Beyond the fact that he is also Jewish, married, and the father of two children, little else was known about this candidate. We moved Award to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- he had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access.

Bob Ayers Robert J. "Bob" Ayers (North Carolina)

Retired teacher and local antiques dealer Bob Ayers filed paperwork with the FEC to run for President in 2004. A World War II veteran, he later worked as a petroleum geologist and a civil engineer before turning to teaching. Ayers is well-known to North Carolina voters because of his frequents runs for office there. He's lost primaries in recent years for Governor, US Senate, and Congress. No website -- only the above-linked email address. Ayers intended to compete for delegates in NC, but no real sign of any active campaign materialized. FYI: Ayers emailed us this drawing and asked that we use it as his picture here.

Former Governor Roy E. Barnes (Georgia) Roy Barnes

Roy Barnes, a centrist, was the subject of some speculation regarding the 2004 Presidential race during 2001-2002. In May 2001, Barnes told the New York Times that is was "absurd" for him to think of running for President ... as he is busy concentrating on his 2002 re-election race. He told the newspaper: "Let me see if I can put this without equivocation and as strong as I can ... I am not running for president of the United States. I am running for Governor. And when I finish that I intend to go back to practicing law. That is all I am doing." Even after that, pundits have speculated his strong comments were intended to eliminate any political distractions until after his 2002 re-election race is over. Barnes lost for re-election in a stunning upset in 2002 -- slamming the door shut on any further speculation about a 2004 White House bid.

Katherine Bateman Katherine Bateman (Illinois)

Unlike most of the other candidates in the race, Katherine Bateman's candidacy was not about winning votes. Instead, it was largely intended as an educational vehicle to get teenagers interested in the political process. "I am running solely on a teen platform determined by teens through their virtual campaign headquarters at www.teenvoice2004.com," wrote Bateman. The teen voters first decided (by online voting) that Bateman -- the project director for the Teen Voice group -- would run as a Democrat in the 2004 New Hampshire primary (14th place - 68 votes). Bateman was Financial Advisor for the Illinois Educational Facilities Authority until its closure at the end of 2003. Before that, she was a Vice President at Nuveen Investments and a college professor. She also wrote various articles and reports -- plus a book for a teen audience entitled The Young Investor. Politics runs in Bateman's familty, as she is a distant cousin of the 19th century statesmen Henry Clay & Cassius Clay. She earned her Bachelor's degree in humanities from Berea College, and her Master's and PhD degrees in medieval art history from the University of Michigan. Bateman has also done post-doctoral work in early Christian history and iconography at the University of Chicago. Bateman's educational campaign ended after the New Hampshire primary -- although her site remains online as an ongoing youth educational tool.

US Senator B. Evan Bayh (Indiana) Evan Bayh

Senator Evan Bayh was viewed as an early prospect for President in 2004. The son of 1970s Presidential candidate Birch Bayh, Evan Bayh served as Indiana Governor before his election the US Senate. He's also been the national convention keynote speaker in 1996 (the speech was rather dull -- but so was Clinton's long-winded debut as 1988 convention keynoter) -- and was on Gore's short-list for VP in 2000. He also has served as Chair of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council since early 2001. To quickly end speculation, Bayh announced in mid-2001 that he would not run for President in 2004. Another related site is Bayh for Senate (official campaign site).

Jerry Beck Jerry G. Beck (Missouri)

Jerry Beck is a businessman and US Marine Corps veteran. While he started out as a general contractor in the construction field, he later launched (and still operates) his own air purifier equipment manufacturing company. His hero is President Harry Truman -- who shares the same home town as Beck. He wanted to strengthen the US economy and create more opportunities to young people. As a first step towards achieving this, Beck wants to repeal NAFTA and other similar trade treaties. He also wants to further restrict welfare programs to force more people to take jobs. Beck says the current welfare system "supports the undeserving and does not help the hardworking man down on his luck." His other concern is restoring prayer to public schools to affirm moral values. Beck previously ran for President in 1996 and 2000, but failed to secure ballot status in any primary states. His 2004 run went the same way as those two prior bids. Another related link is Project Vote Smart: Jerry Beck.

Sanderson Beck (California) Sanderson Beck

Sanderson Beck -- a writer and conscientious objector from the Vietnam War -- ran for President in 2004 as a "world peace candidate." For more than a decade, he has been active in the peace movement -- protesting against nuclear weapons, military actions, etc. In 1989, he was imprisoned for six months for his involvement in a protest against nuclear weapons at a US military base. Not surprisingly, Beck is a also a staunch opponent of the War on Terrorism and any war against Iraq. Beck holds a Masters degree, is a Ph.D. candidate in philosophy at UCLA, and teaches philosophy at a local college. He has also written and self-published many peace-related books. His platform could be summed up in the following statement: "We need to learn how to make peace and establish justice ... by protecting everyone's rights, learning how to share our wealth rather than merely exploit people, and trust in democratic institutions that recognize the votes of all. We need a steady process of disarmament with very careful inspection so that no individual, group, or state can terrorize other people. Finally, we need world democracy that can enforce law fairly for all, not a group of powerful nations imposing their selfish will with national military forces." He withdrew from the race and endorsed Dennis Kucinich in 2003 after he was arrested and jailed for four months related to a non-violent protest he staged against the Iraq War. Other related links are Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids: Sanderson Beck and World Peace Communications Books.

US Senator Joseph R. "Joe" Biden, Jr. (Delaware) Joe Biden

For most of 2002, former US Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Joe Biden -- currently the committee's top Democrat -- seriously looked at making a second run for President in 2004. The September 2001 terrorist attack on America helped quickly raise his national profile -- as Biden now regularly appears on the TV news shows as a leading voice on foreign policy matters. His first bid -- a disasterous run in 1988 -- ended before the first primary under the weight of allegations that he plagiarized some material in his campaign speeches (including biographical segments) from other politicians. First elected to the Senate in 1972 as a challenger at the age of 29, Biden matured and became a respected Senate leader. Biden has built a fairly centrist voting record in the Senate -- and has won his re-election races by wide margins. He has also been a strong advocate in Washington on behalf of credit card giant MBNA, which is based in his home state -- taking positions are often to the detriment of consumers. "Assuming I'm re-elected [in 2002], I'll take a look at it then," said Biden in 2002. Biden won re-election by a comfortable margin -- but his Presidential desires seemed to cool off afterwards as the US's posture towards Iraq heated up. In January 2003, Biden said he was more interested in focusing on his duties on the Foreign Relations Committee even if it means he would be too late to develop an effective campaign. However, in a May 2003 interview, Biden said he was still pondering a late entry into the race. "If I do this, I'm not going to do this on anybody's terms but my own this time ... My reason for not doing it now is: I don't know how you can go out and do all the things you need to do to run for President and still try to shape -- or in some cases impede -- the President's agenda. Here we are talking [in Congress] about low-yield nuclear weapons and John Edwards, John Kerry, Bob Graham and Dick Gephardt are all somewhere else. They're not in the debate. I'm not ready to do that," explained Biden. Supporters responded by launching a Draft Joe Biden for President site. Biden finally made a definitive announcement in August 2003 that he would not run for President in 2004. Other links are JoeBiden.com (official campaign site), Democracy in Action: Joe Biden (university resource), and Delaware Grapevine: Joe-4-Prez (news site).

James K. "Jim" Bollinger (Indiana)

Like Mr. Ashe, above, Jim Bollinger also seemed to have exaggerated his credentials a bit. Bollinger claimed he is former Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Assistant Advisor to the United States Mint, Under Secretary of [Not Specified Department] for Economic Affairs, Business Advisor to Congress, and "Bird Watcher, Forest Service United States." He also claimed to hold two Ph.D. degrees and that "all of you" are his children.

Former US Senator William W. "Bill" Bradley (New Jersey)

Bradley, a popular former pro basketball player and former US Senator, ran a well-financed but curmudgeonly race against Al Gore for the 2000 Democratic nomination. He challenged Gore just slightly from Gore's left -- and his bid forced Gore to retool his own campaign (making Gore a stronger candidate for the general election). With the strong backing of organized labor, Gore was able to knock Bradley from the race early. Bradley subsequently endorsed Gore, although the endorsement came late and lacked a feeling of genuine warmth. In May 2001, Bradley kept the door to a second candidacy open: "At the moment, I've made no overt moves [for 2004] ... I haven't ruled anything out. I haven't made any final decisions." He said he would run in 2004 if he got "the feeling that somehow or other I was the person." Based on Bradley's repeated trips to Iowa in 2001, it looked like he may have been flirting with "the feeling" again. Since the 9-11 attacks, Bradley virtually disappeared from the national political radar -- adopting a low-key profile. Bradley had a fairly safe shot at returning to the US Senate in October 2002 -- when incumbent Senator Bob Torricelli (D-NJ) quit the race and Bradley was purpotedly offered the opportunity to be the party's substitute nominee -- but he passed on the office. While Bradley never explicitly stated he was not running, he simply stopped acting like a potential candidate and his name dropped from consideration. In January 2004, he endorsed Howard Dean for President. Another related site is Bill Bradley's Skeleton Closet (negative).

Former US Senator Carol Moseley Braun (Illinois) Braun

To the surprise of many, controversial former US Senator Carol Moseley Braun (D-IL) announced in January 2003 her intent to launch an exploratory effort for the 2004 Presidential contest -- and, in so doing, withdrew from the 2004 rematch she had been planning to regain her former Senate seat. Braun says her campaign is a legitimate effort to "advance the cause of women in higher office, paving the way for a woman president." Some of Al Sharpton's supporters initially accused Braun of being a plant by the Democratic establishment, placed in the race to split Sharpton's base in the black community -- but there was little they could point to that substantiated the claim. Braun -- the first black female to ever serve in the US Senate -- was defeated for re-election in 1998 amid a swirl of controversy related to illegal campaign finance allegations from her 1992 campaign. She was never charged with any wrongdoing, and later served as US Ambassador to New Zealand in 1999-2001. Braun also was criticized during her tenure in the Senate for her warm embrace of several of the most brutal African dictatorships -- particulary the Nigerian regime. As a Senator, Braun built a solid liberal voting record. She sponsored several progressive education and civil rights bills and was a staunch advocate for stricter gun control laws. Braun -- an attorney -- served for ten years as a State Representative and then for four years as Cook County Recorder of Deeds before being elected to the US Senate in a major 1992 upset victory in the primary over the two-term incumbent. Braun was hampered from the outset by an inability to raise money -- and raised less than $400,000 in three combined reporting periods. Braun -- who readily conceded she couldn't win the nomination -- focused her message on the topic of politically empowering women and minorities. She explained she was running so that little girls across America could see her campaign and grow up understanding that someday a woman will be elected President. Braun stayed in the race long enough to compete in the first actual contest where votes were cast -- the largely symbolic D.C. Presidential primary (3rd place - 12%) on January 12 -- before withdrawing two days later. The same day she also endorsed Howard Dean. Follow the above link to Politics1's detailed profile of Braun.

Harry Braun Harry W. Braun III (Arizona)

Energy analyst Harry Braun ran for President to gain support for his Phoenix Project plan to "make America energy independent and pollution free" through the construction and use of "windship hydrogen production systems." Further, he vowed to implement these changes in "wartime speed." Braun is the owner of a systems integration company involved in a number of renewable energy projects. After earning his undergraduate degree in the liberal arts, his post graduate research has focused on energy technologies and resources. Braun was the Democratic nominee for Congress in 1984 -- but lost by a wide margin against GOP incumbent John McCain. Braun was able to secure ballot status and competed in 2004 primaries in New Hampshire (21st place - 13 votes) and DC (9th place - 83 votes). His campaign site -- linked above -- has position pages on lots of topics like "Exponential Icebergs," radioactive waste, Iraqi oil, "E4 Policy Outline" and more. After the Democratic primary season, Braun announced he would continue his candidacy as an Independent candidate.

Willie Felix Carter (Texas) Willie Carter

Willie Carter -- who previously ran for President four times -- is an Air Force veteran, former aircraft mechanic, union member, former businessman, and Pentecostal church deacon. He's also a father of nine children. His political experience seemed limited to his membership in the Gardena Valley Democratic Club of Southern California. In 2000, Carter captured 30 votes (17th place) in the New Hampshire Democratic primary. Carter filed federal paperwork in 2001 announcing he was again a candidate in 2004. Carter's message was entirely a theocratic one, vowing to "rebuild America God's way." Here's how the candidate explains it: "Now, for our nation to continue to succeed, we must not leave off the success formula. SUCCESS FORMULA: GOD + CREATION + LOVE + MANKIND = GOOD SUCCESS." Calling himself a "Vandidate", Carter drove around the nation by van, tyring to meet with voters are various churches and other places. His favorite campaign events were meet-the-candidate breakfasts at various Denny's restaurants. In 2004, Carter again appeared on the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot (11th place - 86 votes). Carter seemingly ended his campaign after the NH primary -- but he'll likely return again in 2008.

Patrick Cazneau Patrick Cazneau (California)

Patrick Cazneau, 45, is a high school graduate, the father of three, and a grandfather. He also notes his family has worked without interruption for three generations (since 1913) in the movie business. In an email to Politics1, Cazneau summarized his campaign platform as follows: "1. I am Pro-Life (anti-abortion); 2. In favor of socialized medicine; 3. In favor of voluntary school prayer; 4. Strong National Park system; 5. Foreign policy begins in America." We moved Cazneau to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- he had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access.

Jeanne Chebib (District of Columbia)

Little is known about this Democratic hopeful, except that Jeanne Chebib qualified for a spot on the 2004 DC Presidential primary ballot (12th place - 43 votes). Beyond that, all we know is that she briefly made an aborted run in Ohio for Mayor of Cleveland in 2001.

Wes Clark Retired Army General Wesley K. Clark (Arkansas)

Starting in late 2002, retired Army General Wes Clark began flirting with a possible run for President in 2004. He made visits to NH, NC and other key states in 2002 to endorse local Democratic candidates. He followed that up with meetings with top national and Iowa party leaders. During his NH visit, Clark sharply criticized the Bush Administration and laid out a clear vision of where he thinks American foreign policy should be headed. "The United States is a 225-year rolling revolution. We are the embodiment of the Enlightenment. If we're true to those principles, then it's a foreign policy of generosity, humility, engagement, and force where needed -- but as a last resort," explained Clark. On top of his forays into early primary states, Clark was also busy in 2002-03 doing military analysis for CNN, he started a non-profit educational organization focusing on foreign policy, and wrote a second book. Clark -- a lifelong independent (who likes to note he spent his entire career "wearing 'U.S.' on both collars") -- declared himself a Democrat in August 2003. He briefly flirting with a run for Arkansas Governor in 2002, but decided against making that race. A West Point graduate and former Rhodes Scholar, Clark saw combat in the Vietnam War as commander of a mechanized infantry company. He won the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart and other decorations for his heroism in combat. Clark served as Commander-in-Chief of US Southern Command ("SOUTHCOM") and NATO Supreme Allied Commander (during the NATO bombing campaign against Serbia that forced Serbia to end the genocidal military actions in Bosnia). The Washington Post wrote in 2003 that Clark: "remains highly controversial figure within the US military, disliked and mistrusted by many fellow officers. Supporters and detractors agree on this much: The retired general is immensely talented, possessed of a keen strategic sensibility and the kind of gold-plated military credentials ... Clark's intense, emotional personality and his aggressive -- some say abrasive -- command style are likely to be the focus of intense scrutiny ... While his strategic analysis is almost infallible, [a four-star General said Clark's] command solutions tended to be problematic, even 'goofy.'" He retired from the Army in 2000 -- somewhat under pressure because of an incident involving the Russians at Pristina, Bosnia -- and subsequently wrote a bestselling book on military-foreign policy entitled Waging Modern War (2001). The various "Draft Clark" groups were well organized with chapters in most states. They organized online, collecting pledges for over $1.5 million in contributions, opened a National HQ in Arkansas, and even ran TV spots in New Hampshire before Clark finally agreed to enter the race. Because of the impressive draft effort, Clark started with a grassroots base second in scale only to Howard Dean's massive organization. In entering the race, Clark also quickly began to spell out his positions on issues. He let it be known that he was pro-choice, pro-gun control, pro-gay rights (including "taking another look" at ending the ban on gays in the military), pro-environmental protection laws, pro-affirmative action, and was harshly critical of the Bush Administration's decision to launch the Iraq War (although he flip-flopped on the issue during his first few days as an official candidate). President Clinton was reportedly one of those that strongly urged Clark to enter the race -- and many of the former Clinton folks were working for Clark. The much touted claim that "at least 50" Congressmen were prepared to quickly endorse Clark shortly after his entry into the race failed to materialize. Realizing he made a late start, Clark announced in October 2003 that he would not compete in the Iowa caucuses in January 2004. Instead, he focused heavily on New Hampshire, South Carolina and other early contests. Clark reportedly had very strong fundraising period in 4Q 2003 -- raising somewhere in the $11 million range (second only to Howard Dean among the Dems). After finishing a distant third in New Hampshire, Clark needed an outright win in Oklahoma, South Carolina or Arizona on February 3 to stay alive. He didn't come close in SC or AZ, but he scraped out a narrow win in Oklahoma. Despite that, Clark was on the verge of quitting after the Oklahoma results were in -- but his wife convinced him to stay in a little longer to give his campaign a little more time to gain support in the upcoming Southern state primaries. After a dismal third place finish in Tennessee -- a state he targeted -- Clark quit the race in February 2004. Two days later, he endorsed John Kerry. Even though Clark did not win the Presidential nomination, he is already viewed as a top name on the short list of possible VP runningmates. Follow the above link to Politics1's detailed profile of Clark.

US Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (New York) Hillary Clinton

US Senator and former First Lady Hillary Clinton repeatedly stated that she will NOT run for President in 2004 because she promised New Yorkers she would serve the full six-years of her first term in the Senate (i.e., 2001-2007). Why is she listed here? Because -- in response to the "Draft Hillary for Senate" effort in 1998-99 -- she repeatedly said she would not run for US Senator in New York in 2000 (and, it should be noted, Bill Clinton promised during his 1990 re-election campaign to serve his full 4-year term as Governor ... and ran for President just two years later). Despite her statements of disinterest, early polls in 2002 had her in second place (leading all other Democrats except Al Gore) -- although an independent October 2002 poll showed that a whopping 69% of Americans said they would never vote for her for President. A Clinton candidacy is not a total impossibility -- someday -- but the odds of it happening in 2004 appear to be very slim (a 2008 run, however, may be more likely). As First Lady, she led the fight for the President's doomed national health care plan. Now that she is in elected office, she has the opportunity to amass her own voting record -- and she appears to be far more liberal than her husband. In fact, her voting record in the US Senate places her as just about the single most liberal member of the entire Senate. Her memoirs, published in mid-2003, became an instand bestseller. Rumors also floated around Labor Day 2003 that she was reconsidering and would soon enter the 2004 race. Within hours of the story being published, Clinton definitiely shot down the buzz by stating that she was not going to run in 2004 under any circumstances. Then, her husband waded in and dropped more suggestive comments to the media that Hillary could still be convinced to run in 2004. Maybe he simply missed the spotlight and felt a Hillary candidacy would place him back in the national eye. In November 2003, Hillary spoke in Iowa and made it very clear she believed the 2004 Democratic field was a "strong Democratic field" of candidates similar to the 1992 field -- and that no additional candidates were needed. Other related sites are Friends of Hillary (official 2006 Senate campaign site), VoteHillary.org (2004 draft - unofficial), HillaryNow.com (2004 draft - unofficial), the Hillary Clinton Forum (unofficial), and NRSC: Stop Hillary (negative).

Randolph W. "Randy" Crow (North Carolina)

Randy Crow -- a small businessman and former realtor -- was an unsuccessful candidate for the Wilmington City Council in 1997. Then he ran for Congress in the 1998 primary (spending $200 and losing by a lopsided vote of 94% to 6%) ... then he ran for President in the 2000 primaries (he got on the ballot in New Hampshire and Louisiana) ... then he ran another losing primary for Congress later in 2000 (losing by a 93% to 7% vote) .. then he lost for Council again ... and most recently finished last place (9th - 1%) in the 2002 US Senate primary. Undaunted, he's running for President again in 2004. In an email to Politics1 in 2000, Crow explained his motives: "I am involved in politics to get rid of filthy communists and lots of others." He also believes the FBI blew up TWA Flight 800 with a laser and shot down Missouri Governor Mel Carnahan's 2000 campaign plane. On his website, Crow repeatedly expresses open hatred towards Jews (Example: "Vietnam was a zioni$t manipulated War designed to kill our Christian kids and install na$i communi$t zioni$m in the Vietnam region"). Most of the contents of Crow's site, however, appear to be rambling conspiracy tirades against various envisioned enemies: "It has been 13 years since the FBI fessed up to the fact they were investigating me. All my files are classified ... In 1994 the Federal Force manipulated a bunch of mess which questioned my sanity ... I think the Force had some weird blood work done on me or possibly put a computer chip in me." Crow was upset that we quoted these various passages so he printed a rather long, rambling screed on the site denouncing Politics1 as a "zioni$t" tool out to destroy him (he even attacked us for referring to him above as -- gasp -- a "former realtor" because, he notes, he only dabbled in real estate in the past). Crow has qualified for the 2004 NH and Texas primary ballots and is attempting to secure ballot status in other states. Oh, we forget to mention that Crow has a "hunch" that he "may be The Returning Christ ... I do believe firmly that in a way whether or not I am The Returning Christ is a non event and do not worry about it at all, except I do pray that if I am The Returning Christ I would like to be the coolest, greatest, most fantastic Returning Christ in the history of the Universes." Then, he explains, he knows he could defeat the secret Federal Force (or Omega Force or whatever they're called) and the "zioni$ts." Yup, you can read that and lots, LOTS more writings like this on his website. Crow was on the 2004 primary ballot in New Hampshire (15th place - 60 votes) and Texas (10th place - 0.8% - 6,319 votes). He withdrew from the race in March 2004, shortly after the Texas primary -- and immediately announced he will run for President again in 2008.

Tom Daschle US Senator Thomas A. "Tom" Daschle (South Dakota)

If holding actual power defines leadership, then US Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle was unquestionably the most powerful Democrat in America during 2001-02. The defection of a GOP Senator to the Democrats elevated Daschle and his party to majority status in the Senate -- and made them (for a time) the only true political opposition to President Bush with the ability to actually derail his legislative agenda -- until the 2002 elections ended Dem control of the Senate and returned Daschle to being Senate Minority Leader. Respected and bright, Dashcle is also rather more liberal than many of his colleagues. Daschle's increased profile gave him a better opportunity to exhibit leadership skills, set a political agenda, and raise his national profile with TV viewers. He announced in January 2003 that he would not run for President, as he realized his "passion lies here in the Senate." Other related sites are Senate Democratic Leadership (official leadership site), DashPAC (Daschle's official leadership PAC), DaschleDemocrats.org (unofficial), Democracy in Action: Tom Daschle (university resource), and DumpDaschle.org (negative).

Former Governor J. Graham "Gray" Davis, Jr. (California) Gray Davis

California Governor Gray Davis was initially viewed as one of the potentially stronger Democratic hopefuls for 2004 because he comes from vote-rich California and is one of the most successful fundraisers in the party. His high negative ratings in his home state and his poor performance (albeit successful, over an opponent even more disliked than himself) in the 2002 re-election race largely ended his flirtation with making a presidential run. A few days after winning re-election in 2004, Davis adamantly told a California TV station he has "no intention of running" for President in 2004. Those comments ended any further speculation about a Davis 2004 run. California voters removed Davis from office in the October 2003 recall vote that elected Arnold Schwarzenegger as the new Governor. Other related sites are Rescue California (negative) and RecallGrayDavis.com (negative).

Howard Dean Former Governor Howard Dean (Vermont)

Vermont Governor Howard Dean, M.D. -- a Yale-educated physician -- did not seek re-election in 2002 to a seventh consecutive, two-year term. Instead, Dean became the first Democrat to formally jump into the P2004 race and spent much of 2002 visiting 28 states. Dean likes to tell how he came into office as Governor with the state in the red and left office with it in the black, signed 11 consecutive balanced budgets, and that he was able to do that while also creating the innovative state program that now guarantees health care coverage for all children under age 18. He also adopted campaign finance reform legislation and increased educational funding for poorer communities. Still -- as the obscure Governor of a rather tiny state -- Dean stayed well-below the national political radar for most of his career (which also included 10 years of practicing medicine, two terms in the State House, three terms as Lieutenant Governor and a term as the National Governors Association chairman). His brief flirtation with a 2000 White House bid went largely unnoticed -- and those that noticed opined that Dean was likely trying for a shot at the VP spot. Dean's obscurity ended instantly, however, when he signed the controversial Civil Unions bill into law in 2000 -- a law that granted full legal recognition and rights to same-sex couples in the state. From that point forward, Religious Right activists targeted Dean for defeat in 2000 as a supporter of "gay marriage" (which Dean opposed). Dean, however, handily won re-election by a 13-point margin. Not only has Dean refused to back down from his support for civil unions, he stated that his political career would have been "meaningless" had he had not been willing to risk everything to stand up for that significant civil rights law. In November 2001, Dean established a federal leadership PAC (Fund for a Healthy America) -- paving the way for him to begin exploring a 2004 Presidential run. A short time later, he launched an official campaign committee. Dean made health care reform and opposition to the Iraq war his top issues -- although everything folded into his populist "I want my country back!" campaign theme. Dean -- initially viewed as a long-shot to capture the nomination -- surprised many by quickly building a solid campaign organization in Iowa, New Hampshire and other early contest states. On the stump, his blunt and feisty style set him apart from the other Dems and won him an army of supporters. Dean used the internet better than any other candidate to create and mobilize a national campaign organization --but was never able to convert that online support into realtime votes on primary days. The second area where Dean was able to destroy his opponents is in the hunt for campaign dollars. Dean raised a record-high $50.3 million by the time of his withdrawal from the race. Al Gore's endorsement of Dean in December 2003 helped cement the perception of inevitability of Dean's nomination -- but was, in hindsight the beginning of Dean's rapid downward slide as his anti-establishment message clashed with his daily photo ops with more insider politicians endorsing him. Dean's campaign stumbled badly with a weak third-place finish in Iowa. Dean's poor finish was due in large part to Dean being the target of a withering and lengthy barrage of attack spots from Dick Gephardt and others in the final two weeks. Dean also seemed to lose some of the focus and message in the final weeks before Iowa, wasn't seem as warm enough (actually, he was viewed as "too angry"), and his corps of first-time young voters failed to materialize on caucus day. Dean suffered another second place finish in New Hampshire behind Kerry -- which ended his real viability in the race. The next day, Dean replacedcampaign manager Joe Trippi with a DC insider. Because of money shortages, Dean also decided to not spend any money on the February 3 contests in SC, MO, OK, etc., and instead tried to to win a state on February 7 in Washington State and Michigan. That sealed his fate. He quickly realized Michigan was far outside of his grasp, but he did reasonably well in Washington (he lost to Kerry by a 49% to 30% vote). Dean had declared Wisconsin (February 17) is his do-or-die state, saying that he will be "out of the race" if he failed to win there -- but, just a few days later when he was trailing badly in polls there, he said he'd stay in the race no matter how he did in Wisconsin. The reality of the situation -- by mid-February -- was that "the Dean moment" had passed. One day after a dismal third finish in Wisconsin (18%), Dean quit the race by suspending his candidacy but allowing his name to remain on upcoming primary ballots. Dean later endorsed Kerry (and said he will actively support him) and in mid-March launched a new progressive grassroots Democratic group to harness the energy of his legion of devoted Deaniacs. Dean still may have "won" the race in a way -- not in votes or delegates -- but by his work to return the party to its core values and draw the next generation of activists into the political process. Follow the above link to Politics1's detailed profile of Dean.

US Senator Christopher J. "Chris" Dodd (Connecticut) Chris Dodd

Senator Chris Dodd has aspired to a leadership position in the past. In 1994, he ran for the Democratic Leader post in the US Senate as a last-minute candidate -- and lost to Tom Daschle by just one vote. As a consolation prize, President Clinton tapped Dodd to be Democratic National Chairman in 1995-97. A traditional Northeastern liberal, Dodd is passionate on his issues and well-liked by his colleagues. The son of the late US Senator Tom Dodd (who was defeated for re-election in 1970 after being censured for ethics violations), Dodd was elected to an open Congressional seat in 1974 just months after he graduated from law school. In 1980, he outmaneuvered a House colleague to win an open US Senate seat. Since then, Dodd has won three landslide re-elections. To the surprise of most (especially because Dodd became a first-time father in 2001), Dodd himself floated the possibility of a White House bid in 2004. As the Senate Rules Committee Chairman in 2001-02, Dodd had much power -- but little TV visibility. In 2002, Dodd made political trips to Florida, NC, California and 18 other states on behalf of various locla Democratic candidates. In January 2003, Dodd was on the verge of entering the race -- even promising to run an unorthodox campaign -- but, in March 2003, Dodd finally announced he would not run for President. He also said he would seek re-election in 2004, and would support Joe Lieberman for President. Related sites include Dodd for Senate 2004 (official campaign site) and Democracy in Action: Chris Dodd (university resource).

Gerry Dokka Gerry Dokka (Georgia)

Retired businessman Gerry Dokka, 68, ran for President in 2004 because he wanted to bring peace to the Middle East. He was also strongly opposed to President Bush, whom he described as a "right-wing extremist." Born in upstate New York, Dokka has lived most his life in Georgia. A divorced father of five, Dokka spent his career in broadcast journalism, which included the ownership of a radio news network known as the "Georgia Audio Network." He was also previously a candidate for US Senator in Georgia in the 1972 Democratic primary. Dokka qualified for a spot on the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot (18th place - 42 votes). His campaign ended after the NH primary. No known campaign website.

US Senator John R. Edwards (North Carolina) John Edwards

Senator John Edwards -- one of the earliest hopefuls to start criss-crossing the nation for the 2004 Presidential race -- filed federal paperwork to launch his campaign in January 2003. Edwards -- a popular, telegenic, multimillionaire trial attorney -- first gained national attention on his first bid for political officer in 1998 when he ousted GOP incumbent US Senator Lauch Faircloth in a major upset. After spending less than two years in the US Senate, Edwards surprisingly made it onto the final short-list of 4-5 names for the Gore VP runningmate spot on the 2000 Democratic ticket. Edwards appeared for a while in 2001 to be a favorite of the party's wealthy liberal donor base -- and implied he was locking up some good support in early states -- but much of that turned out to be mere hype. As for ideology, the populist Edwards falls in the liberal-to-populist range (pro-choice, environmentalist, pro-health care reform, etc.). He also cultivated an image in the campaign as an DC "outsider." In making the run for President, Edwards passed on seeking re-election to the Senate in 2004. After raising a large amount of money at the outset ($7.4 million 1Q 2003), he then suffered setbacks. Edwards' campaign manager and a top field organizer defected to a rival campaign in March 2003. He spent the rest of the year trying to get traction in Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina -- hoping to break out somewhere to get a shot at being frontrunner. Edwards' strong second finish in the Iowa caucuses pushed him back into the first tier of candidates. His fourth place finish in New Hampshire was still in the range of what was expected for him, so it didn't do him any significant damage. The race next moved to South Carolina (his birth state) -- which was his declared make-or-break state -- and he won it by a comfortable margin. He also performed a surprisingly strong second in Oklahoma on that same day. Still, with money running tight for Edwards, he was forced to curtail his efforts in the mid-February period. His strategy was to outlast Dean and Clark, making him to only viable alternative to Kerry by the time Super Tuesday rolls around -- and it apparently worked, but too late. After a much stronger than expected second place finish in Wisconsin, he appeared to have some energy going into Super Tuesday. A lackluster performance in his final debates ended Edwards' momentum and Kerry knocked him from the race on Super Tuesday. In the end, he only won one state. He withdrew on March 3, 2004 and said he'd actively support the nominee. Follow the above link to Politics1's detailed profile of Edwards.

John A. Estrada (Nevada) John Estrada

John Estrada, who touts himself as a fourth generation American, is a small businessman, Navy veteran, father, grandfather ... and a frequent Congressional candidate in California over the past decade. Estrada organized an Internet-based campaign against scandal-plagued Congressman Gary Condit (D-CA) in 2001-02 that received some media attention. As for the 2004 campaign, Estrada said "Americans deserve better than the last Democratic President." Estrada vowed to stengthen the US military, impose a national moratorium on abortion and the death penalty, repeal gun control laws, reduce taxes, adopt "living wage" legislation, and make health care and college more affordable. However, when he was unable to secure ballot status anywhere by January 2004, he retooled his campaign site into a charter school site, effectively ending his campaign.

Russ Feingold US Senator Russell D. "Russ" Feingold (Wisconsin)

Since his upset election in 1992, folsky populist Senator Russ Feingold has built a solid liberal and pro-labor voting record. He is best known, however, as the co-sponsor of the McCain-Feingold federal campaign finance reform law. Feingold stood out as the lone dissenting vote in the Senate against the bipartisan anti-terrorist legislative package in late 2001, citing his concern for protecting civil rights. He has also been a fierce critic of Attorney General John Ashcroft. Feingold openly talked in 2001 of his interest in seeking the White House in 2004, and hoped that organized labor would have encouraged him to run. The early response from labor union leaders, however, was warm praise mixed with pleas for him to remain in the Senate instead of running for President. After trips to Iowa and New Hampshire, Feingold said in December 2001: "I do want to have some influence in 2004 [but] I probably do not intend to have that impact as a candidate." However, he added that he wants to ensure that the party nominates "an aggressive, progressive candidate" who will steer the party away from the centrist DLC. Feingold is now seeking re-election in 2004. Related sites are the Feingold Senate Committee (official 2004 campaign site) and Democracy in Action: Russ Feingold (university resource).

US Senator Dianne G. Feinstein (California) Dianne Feinstein

Senator Dianne Feinstein -- who turns 71 in 2004 -- has a political career spanning over thirty years. Starting as a San Francisco City Supervisor in 1970, she rose to be San Francisco Mayor before losing a close 1990 gubernatorial race. Two years later, Feinstein bounched back and was elected to the US Senate in a landslide over a GOP incumbent. She was considered by Gore as a possible VP runningmate for 2000, but she did not make the final short list. Wealthy, politically astute, an adept fundraiser and an ideological centrist, Feinstein for a while seemed at least marginally interested in running for President in 2004. She created a leadership PAC in 2001 so she could raise funds to promote her efforts. After weighing a possible race, Feinstein announced in November 2002 that she would not run for President in 2004 -- and later endorsed John Kerry. Other related sites are Feinstein for Senate (official campaign site) and The DiFi Watch (negative).

Susan Fey (Colorado) Susan Fey

Susan Fey promised "to recognize the oneness of all peoples ... to support every individual in the discovery and fulfillment of their innate purpose; to restore and protect our environment; to build an economy which supports all our people; to develop and use our technology for the purposes of caring for one another in harmony with the needs of all life on this planet; to cooperate with all other nations as part of our extended family, focusing on peace, sister and brotherhood, mutual prosperity, and the loving care of our beautiful planet." Fey, an elementary school teacher, is also a local community activist. She previously founded a residential treatment center for emotionally disturbed children, directed a center for families affected by HIV/AIDS, started a parenting program for pregnant teens, a board and care center for senior citizens, and was president of a local environmentalist group. "My non-profit administrative expericence is particularly important because our government is currently being run as a for-the-profit-of-the-few organization paid for by ordinary citizens," explained Fey. She failed to achieve ballot status in any primary states.

Dick Gephardt Congressman Richard A. "Dick" Gephardt (Missouri)

Former US House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt started as one of the few first-tier Democratic candidates for 2004 -- although others quickly jockeyed into that category. He filed his federal paperwork to run in January 2003. Gephardt's role as leader of the House Democrats for eight years created a natural, nationwide network of supporters and provided him with visible platform from which to be heard. He was also one of the most successful fundraisers within the party -- having raised in excess of $20 million over the years for Democrats around the nation. Gephardt stepped down as House Democratic Leader in November 2002, after failing to lead the Democrats in four elections back to majority status in the House. Some critics within the party gave him at least partial blame for the Democrats' failure to retake the House over those four election cycles. Still, he enjoyed strong support from labor unions, the Jewish community, and old New Deal-style liberals. Gephardt previously made an unsuccessful run for President in 1988 (as did Al Gore, among others) and briefly flirted with running in 2000. He seemed well positioned for the 2004 race at the outset -- especially with Gore now out of the race -- but he never got traction. While Howard Dean and several others loudly postured as the anti-Iraq war candidates, Gephardt stood out for his early and solid support for the Iraq war -- a position should have resonated well with more centrist voters. To prove his committment to the White House race, Gephardt announced he would not be a candidate for re-election to Congress in 2004. Gephardt reported raising $13.6 million as of the close of 3Q 2003 reporting period -- the fifth most among the Dems -- and more than a million below the fundraising target his campaign previously announced. In fact, Gephardt's total was roughly half of what Dean had raised through the same period. Despite those money problems, Gephardt was clearly the early favorite of the labor unions. He collected twenty national labor union endorsements. However -- when Dean secured the endorsements of the giant AFSCME and SEIU unions -- Dean blocked Gephardt from winning the prized AFL-CIO endorsement he needed to help him in Iowa and other early states. The key survival test for Gephardt was clearly Iowa. Why? Because Iowa is a neighbor of Gephardt's Missouri base, is heavily dominated by labor unions, and he carried Iowa in his 1988 run for President. His dismal fourth place finish there with just 11% doomed his campaign and forced him out of the race in mid-January. Gephardt later endorsed John Kerry for President in early February 2004. Follow the above link to our detailed Gephardt page.

Mildred W. Glover (Maryland) Mildred Glover

Dr. Mildred Glover -- the Assistant Dean and Director of the MBA program at Morgan State University -- qualified for 2004 primary ballots in New Hampshire (22nd place - 11 votes) and Maryland (8th place - 0.8% - 4,039 votes). Her campaign slogan was "Rebuilding America" -- which referenced her plan to improve the country's infrastructure and federalize local jobs. She opposed the Iraq War and the millions spent since then to rebuild Iraq. "Bring our boys home. Bring the $87 billion to education. The war is suicide," she explained. Glover also emphasized her support for Affirmative Action programs. Glover attempted to take part in the Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate in September sponsored by the Congressional Black Caucus (and held right on her own school's campus) -- but the CBC organizers blocked her attempt to join the others. Glover, 68, served in the Georgia State House from 1975-83 and also lost a 1986 primary race for Congress in that state. She was also a former president of an import-export business. "I have the nerve and the guts to go out and do what it takes. As a female, a black, a senior, and a poor woman, I have all those strikes against me, but I'm proud to have inherited each and every one of them ... America has a spirit of wanting to help the underdog, and I'm sure an underdog," she told the Boston Globe.

Al Gore Former Vice President Albert "Al" Gore, Jr. (Tennessee)

Now that time has passed since the end of the 2000 elections, former US Vice President Al Gore has developed a good sense of humor about the final outcome. Gore now jokes that in life "you win some, you lose some -- and, in my case, I learned there was a third option." In the 2000 primaries, Gore easily dispatched Bill Bradley by winning all the primary contests by wide margins. Gore won over 500,000 more votes than George W. Bush in the general election but -- in a swirl of recount controversy related to allegedly confusing "butterfly ballots" and "pregnant chads" in Florida and the 5-4 decision by the US Supreme Court -- lost the electoral vote to Bush by a 271-266 vote. Despite the 2000 outcome, Gore won more total votes than any Democratic Presidential candidate in US history. Ralph Nader's Green Party candidacy also siphoned off essential liberal votes in key states, effectively sealing Gore's fate. After a lengthy visit to Europe in 2001, a bearded Gore returned to the US and the political stage (mainly as a visiting college professor and as a speaker on the national circuit). By Spring 2002, the beard was gone and Gore launched a his own leadership PAC. Hardcore Democratic partisans, in response to the controversial way the 2000 race ended, had already printed "Re-Elect Gore-Lieberman 2004" buttons and stickers before Gore made his decision on the race. Polls repeatedly showed in 2002 that the nomination appeared to be Gore's for the asking -- but he announced in December 2002 that he would not run in 2004. Unwilling to accept his decision, some have even launched a Draft Gore 2004 effort. In an effort to finally end the move to pull him back into the 2004 race, Gore gave a major policy address in August 2003 in which he made clear he would not reconsider his decision -- but that he did intend to endorse one of the candidates within a few months. In December 2003, Gore endorsed Howard Dean for President. In addition to the Al Gore Support Center (linked above, next to Gore's picture), other related Gore links include AlGoreDemocrats.com (unofficial), Al-Gore-2004.org (unofficial), ElectGore04.com (unofficial), Al Gore is Our President (unofficial), Gore2004US.com (unofficial), Clinton Gore Alumni Association (networking organization), Al Gore's Skeleton Closet (negative) and Al Gore Quotes (negative).

US Senator Bob Graham (Florida) Bob Graham

Senator Bob Graham harbored Presidential ambitions for years -- but he always downplayed the speculation until this time. As the ranking Democrat on the Senate Intelligence Committee, the low-key Graham saw his political profile rise with his steady stream of TV appearances during the War on Terrorism. Graham insisted -- unsuccessfully -- on more military action against the international terrorist networks before the US moved forward with any attack on Iraq. Since entering politics in 1966, Graham has never lost an election. A multi-millionaire and close relative of the family that published the Washington Post, Graham re-tooled himself in Florida into a photo-op populist through his clever "Workdays" gimmick in the 1978 gubernatorial race. Then a little-known state senator, Graham won the race in a major upset after spending 100 days working in various jobs around the state (teacher, dock worker, bank teller, farmer, carpenter, flight attendant, etc.). Since then, Graham has continued to do his Workdays -- and his site logs the nearly 400 he's worked to date. As Governor, Graham signed more death warrants than anyone in Florida history. He also pushed for educational reform and Everglades restoration programs. In both 1984 and 1988, his friends printed "Graham for VP" buttons for the national convention delegates -- but those efforts never went anywhere. Term limited as Governor in 1986, Graham instead ran against a GOP incumbent US Senator and won by a 10-point margin. During his years in the Senate, he built a fairly centrist record. In 2000, Graham was a finalist on Gore's shortlist of potential VP runningmates (a move that, in hindsight, could have made a major difference in Florida). Graham exudes almost zero charisma -- but he's bright, he's never been implicated in any scandal, and he comes from a key state the Dems need to win 2004. Graham -- who will be 67 in 2004 -- planned to announce his 2004 decision on February 3, 2003. Instead, a previously undetected heart problem derailed his announcement -- and Graham had open-heart valve replacement surgery in late January. After a quick recovery, Graham filed paperwork for his exploratory committee in late February 2003. Graham reported raising $1 million as of the close of the March 31, 2003 federal reporting period -- not bad, considering that amount only represented three weeks of telephonic fundraising in his homestate. Graham also scored a nice coup when John Edwards' campaign manager and another top aide defected to his campaign in March 2003 -- and they immediately adopted the NASCAR sponsorship strategy they previously used in Mark Warner's Virginia gubernatorial win in 2001. And, in a move that placed him off on the quirky side of the field, Graham also took to singing songs about himself from time to time at campaign events. Graham reported receipts of only $2 million for 2Q 2003 -- the lowest of any of the "major" contenders. After failing to raise less than half of his announced $4 million fundraising goal in 3Q 2003, Graham was forced to dump a bunch of top staffers and radically scale back his operation. Days later, Graham pulled the plug on his White House bid on October 6, 2003. His stock for the 2004 VP slot looked much higher before his lackluster Presidential campaign -- but rose again as General Clark's star dimmed for the VP position. Follow the above link to our detailed Graham page.

Albert "Al" Hamburg (Wyoming) Al Hamburg

Perennial candidate Al Hamburg, 72, had lost 14 consecutive bids for President and for Governor, US Senate and Congress before the 2004 race. He proudly described himself as the "Very Independent UNPOPULAR Candidate" -- unpopular, he explains, because the special interests and bureaucrats hate him (well, that ... and maybe also because of the Nazi helmet he's wearing in his photo). "I make more people mad than I make want to vote for me," he added. A house painter by trade, Hamburg spent nearly twenty years in the Army -- serving in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. He has run for state office repeatedly -- at various times -- as a Democrat, an Independent, and as a member of the now-defunct New Alliance Party. Hamburg also made news in the 1980s when he sued a woman for breach of contract involving a car he sold to her. In the lawsuit, he said the woman agreed to have sex with him fifty times in exchange for the car -- but that she stopped performing her end of the deal after 33 times. Claiming to be a homeless veteran, Hamburg suddenly popped-up in Nebraska in 2000 -- claimed that state as his new residency -- and filed as a candidate there for US Senator in the Democratic primary. Hamburg moved back to Wyoming and filed FEC paperwork in 2001 to run for President again. We moved Hamburg to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- he had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access. Instead, he was again running for Congress.

Vincent S. Hamm (Colorado)

A computer consultant, Vincent Hamm won 70 votes (13th place) in the 1996 New Hampshire primary ... and just 22 votes (19th place) in the 2000 NH Democratic primary. He was back for a third run in the 2004 NH primary (16th place - 58 votes). Hamm's platform included drug legalization, increased educational spending, preserving our natural resources, and some other liberal views. He explained he was largely running "because I can" -- and already plans to keep running in future years. His campaign website was last updated in October 1999. His 2004 run ended after the NH primary, so we guess he's already working on his 2008 bid. Other related links are Hamm Ltd. (Hamm's business) and Aim High, Inc. (another Hamm business).

Amanda Lou Hardy (District of Columbia)

No info was known about this Democratic hopeful, except that she filed FEC paperwork to run. We moved Hardy to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- she had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access.

Former US Senator Gary W. Hart (Colorado) Gary Hart

Senator Gary Hart was once a rapidly rising star on the national political scene -- until he destroyed himself politically in an embarrassing sexual scandal in the late 1980s. Hart, a former divinity student and lawyer, first gained attention as the manager of anti-war Senator George McGovern's 1972 Presidential campaign. In 1974, Hart was elected to the US Senate. Ten years later, Hart made his first run for President. Starting as an underdog, Hart's "New Ideas" campaign scored a major upset win in the NH primary over favored candidate Walter Mondale. Hart waged a tough fight for the nomination -- winning several key primaries -- but Mondale prevailed (based in large part on party rules that gave a large number of "super-delegate" seats to party insiders). After Mondale's landslide defeat in the general election, Hart was instantly proclaimed the Democratic frontrunner for the 1988 race. Hart did not seek re-election to the Senate in 1986 in order to concentrate on the Presidential race. Polls showed him far ahead of the field of rival -- until the sex scandal broke. Hart was rumored for years to have engaged in extramarital affairs but, when asked in 1987 by a reporter, he answered "Go ahead, follow me -- you'll be bored." They did follow him and within just days caught him in an affair with a woman named Donna Rice. The press even found a photo of Rice sitting in Hart's lap -- taken in the Bahamas aboard a boat named (appropriately) "Monkey Business." Hart quit the race -- then jumped back in a few months later, but performed dismally in the few primaries he entered. Of course, all of this was before the Bill Clinton sex scandals -- which made Hart's indiscretion look trivial by comparison. Since leaving politics in 1988, Hart has practiced law in been actively involved with national security and international policy think tanks -- writing extensively and passionately on those topics. He also served on the US Commission on National Security, which had endorsed creation of a homeland security agency before the 9-11 attacks. He even became a novelist. In March 2003, Hart announced his plans to open an exploratory committee to start his Presidential fundraising activities. Hart acknowledges that he misses playing a serious policy role on the national stage -- and hopes his candidacy will reassert him into a policy leadership role within the Democratic Party. Despite this desire, Hart quickly ended his White House effort in May 2003. "I've concluded that I do not have sufficient enthusiasm for the mechanical side of campaigning, the money, the media and the polling and so forth to go forward with a campaign," explained Hart.

Ken Hill (South Carolina) Ken Hill

Ken Hill wrote Politics1 that he differed "from the other candidates in two distinct ways: I will defeat the nine so-called 'nationally recognized' candidates and I can defeat George 'Dubya' Bush." Hill -- a father of four -- works as an NDE (Non-Destructive Evaluation) Inspector. As a working man, he said he'd bring a different perspective from the "rich men" and lawyers who have served as President in recent years. Among his promises: making military salaries tax-exempt, "real" Social Security reform, a reduction in welfare rolls, and "shrink the size of the Federal Government." He also opposed the War in Iraq (as a needless war for oil), denounced President Bush's massive deficit spending, and praised the Clinton Administration as "one of the most successful administrations of the 20th Century." We moved Hill to our "inactive" list because -- by March 2004 -- he had yet to qualify for any primary ballots and did not appear to be attempting to gain ballot access.

Arthur H Jackson Arthur H. "Action" Jackson Jr. (District of Columbia)

Business consultant Arthur H. Jackson -- a frequent candidate in DC for Mayor and City Council -- qualified for the DC Presidential primary ballot in 2004 (7th place - 226 votes). He earned his college and graduate degrees in business from American University. Before starting his own firm, he worked the DC city government in a procurement office. When he was 18, he was elected in Maryland to a seat on the Fairmount Heights City Council -- which he boasts made him the "Youngest City Councilmember in U.S. History." In 2000, he was elected to a term as a DC Democratic State Committeeman for his ward of the city -- but he later resigned. No campaign site, but the above link goes to Jackson's consulting company. His Presidential campaign was limited to his participation in the DC primary.

Congressman Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. (Illinois) Jesse Jackson Jr.

Congressman Jesse Jackson Jr. (who only turned 39 in 2004) was mentioned for a while as a possible Presidential contender for the race. Jackson -- son of the two-time Presidential candidate Rev. Jesse Jackson -- is a strong orator in his own right, a former field organizer for the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition, and is now serving his sixth term in Congress. For now, his actions on the national scene indicate Jackson may make a US Senate run in the future or a White House bid in 2008 or later ... but he early on decided not to run in 2004. In fact, he endorsed Howard Dean in late 2003. Jackson has successfully used his combination campaign/congressional office website (linked above) to gather a large national email network of supporters -- and will likely continue to use this site to promote his ideological platform (plus sell his books, promote his speaking tours, etc.) for some future race. Other related sites are Progressive Magazine: Jesse Jackson Jr. (interview) and Rainbow/PUSH Coalition (Rev. Jesse Jackson's organization).

Alfonzo Jones (New York)

Except for the fact that Jones filed paperwork with the FEC to run for President -- just as he did in 1996 and 2000 -- no other info was known about this Democratic hopeful. His 2004 candidacy went that same invisible way of his past runs.

Congresswoman Marcia C. "Marcy" Kaptur (Ohio) Marcy Kaptur

Congresswoman Marcy Kaptur seemed to be playing with the national media for much of 2001-02. After visits to Iowa and New Hampshire, Kaptur joked that she would have made trips there sooner in her career if she had known that would get her national attention for her issues. An Ohio Congressman (John Kasich) made a failed bid for President in 2000 -- and the last Congressman elected President was from Ohio (but that was in 1880). With little name recognition -- and a weak fundraiser -- Kaptur was not likely to be a serious contender for the nomination. Still, Kaptur would like to move up in politics -- possibly to the US Senate or the Vice Presidency. Interestingly, in 1996, Ross Perot offered Kaptur the VP spot on the Reform Party ticket (she turned him down). Kaptur likes of the idea of being mentioned as a White House hopeful and says she "could do the job." Still, that's a long way from being elected President. Kaptur, a fierce critic of NAFTA and US military adventurism, said in September 2001 that she wants "to get people thinking about these issues in the context of Presidential politics." In November 2002, she made a last-minute, one-day run for the post of House Democratic Leader -- grabbed some national media coverage -- but then quit before the first ballot was taken. By early 2003, her named dropped off the Presidential radar due to her inactivity on the national scene. Another related site is VoteMarcy.com (official Congressional campaign site).

Bob Kerrey Former US Senator J. Robert "Bob" Kerrey (Nebraska)

Former Senator Bob Kerrey -- who now lives in New York City and serves as President of the New School -- seemed highly unlikely to run for President in 2004 (even when his name kept popping up now and then as a "wish" candidate). Kerrey, a disabled Vietnam War veteran, won the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Bronze Star and the Purple Heart as a Navy SEAL. However, in 2001, Kerrey was forced to admit that his unit unintentionally killed several civilians in a raid on a Vietnamese village in 1969 (this raid was unrelated to the combat in which he won his Medal of Honor). Kerrey's candor, however, seems to have minimized the potential fallout from the coverage. Kerrey ran for President in 1992 -- a campaign he now describes as "unfocused" -- but lost in the primaries to Bill Clinton. During much of the Clinton years, Kerrey was vocal White House critic -- and often attacked Clinton from the right on fiscal and military issues. He even briefly considered making a 1996 primary run against Clinton, before discarding the idea. He also could not bring himself to support Gore in the 2000 primaries, so instead was one of the few prominent Democrats to endorse Bill Bradley for President. Kerrey recently married and is once again a new father, so he may want to spend his time over the next two years with his family. Kerrey kepts his former leadership PAC active -- and gave money to Iowa and New Hampshire local candidates again in 2002. He also made a point of speaking out in late 2002 in favor of the US taking military action against Iraq. However, without ever saying he wasn't running, he slipped into the "not running" category sometime in mid-2003. Other related sites are Biographical Directory of the US Congress: Bob Kerrey (government site), Special Forces Association: J. Robert Kerrey (profile) and Nebraska's Own Kurt Waldheim (negative).

Caroline P. Killeen (Pennsylvania) Emily Killeen

Caroline Killeen -- a frequent marijuana legalization and peace candidate -- qualified for a spot on the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot (19th place - 31 votes). Previously, she ran for President in the NH primary in 1992 (96 votes) and 1996 (393 votes), and for US Senate and Arizona Governor. At age 77, the self-styled "Hemp Lady" and a sometimes homeless former Catholic nun was back for another White House run. Killeen had campaigned in the past by bicycle, usually accompanied by her loyal dog. To raise attention over the years for her legalization fight, she pedaled cross-country at least ten times to date. If elected, she promised to personally lobby the Pope to have him endorse marijuana use. She called her campaign platform "Killeen up America" (pronounced to kinda sound like "Clean-up America"). She supported converting the US to the metric system, environmental protection laws, abolishing the electoral college, and protecting smokers' rights. She opposes gay rights laws, women's rights laws, sanctions against Cuba, and war. "I don't mind the connotation that I'm homeless, because I am a bohemian and a Franciscan who believes in living close to nature," explained Killeen. If nominated, Killeen said she would have selected Wesley Clark as her VP runningmate. Her 2004 race ended afted the NH primary.

Dennis Kucinich Dennis J. Kucinich (D-Ohio)

Congressman Dennis Kucinich -- the Chair of Congressional Progressive Caucus -- was one of the most unexpected names to be floated in the P2004 race. He first saw his name being mentioned as a possible Presidential candidate in the aftermath of a largely unpublicized speech he gave in February 2002 at a gathering of the liberal Americans for Democratic Action group. In the speech, Kucinich said that it was "patriotic" to dissent against the purported extra-constitutional measures the Bush Administration wanted to use in the War on Terrorism. Someone unknown posted the speech on the net, starting it in public circulation -- and those postings apparently prompted over 23,000 people to email Kucinich urging him to run for President in 2004. Liberal writer Studs Terkel then wrote an article in The Nation suggesting a Kucinich candidacy as the best hope for the left-wing of the Democratic Party. That prodded Kucinich to begin giving speeches around the country -- and to ultimately launch his Presidential campaign. He certainly stood out as one of the only members of Congress to have criticized the US bombing campaign against Afghanistan -- arguing the US response to 9/11 should have something like a police action, not a war. On other issues -- which Kucinich used to define his "holistic worldview" -- Kucinich opposed NAFTA and free trade deals, opposed any privatization of Social Security, stridently opposed nearly all increases in military spending, supports creation of a Department of Peace in the Cabinet, supports stronger environmenal protection laws, and supports universal health care. He also had a solid pro-life record on abortion going back nearly three decades (he even cast votes in recent years to criminalize the performing of abortions) -- but seemed to suddently shift to a pro-choice stance sometime in mid-2002, right around the time he began considering the Presidential contest. Kucinich first came to national prominence in 1977 when he was elected Cleveland Mayor at age 31. A financial crisis forced the city into fiscal default -- and caused Kucinich to lose his 1979 re-election bid. It took 15 more years -- 1994 -- before he was able to re-start his political career by winning a State Senate seat. Two years later, Kucinich was elected to Congress. Then he decided to hint at an interest in the White House race: "I have a sense of urgency. This is a time when world peace is at stake, when nuclear armament is occurring, when domestic needs, such as health care, are being ignored ... I am trying to be a spokesperson. I have this sense of an unarticulated consciousness that exists in this country and that has been waiting for representation." That encouraged a "Draft Kucinich" movement. And that, in turn, led to Kucinich filing federal paperwork to enter the race in February 2003. Since then, the quirky, vegan Kucinich -- who touts himself frequently as "The Peace Candidate" -- has earned a devoted following from the more left-wing faction of party activists and entertainment celebrities (Ed Asner, Ed Begley Jr., Willie Nelson, Pete Seeger, etc.). Kucinich has also been building ties to the Natural Law Party -- including giving a speech to the NLP at its National HQ in Iowa (and the NLP, in turn, heavily promotes Kucinich for President on the NLP website). "Congressman Kucinich ... deserves our strong support," wrote NLP Leader John Hagelin in a 2003 statement. In a January 2003 statement that stopped just short of an endorsement, former Green Party nominee Ralph Nader also urged Kucinich to run for President and praised him as "a clearly progressive candidate." He scored in the 1-2% range in the early contests. His best showing came in Hawaii's caucuses (2nd place), but he was also the only candidate to bother campaigning there. Even in his homestate of Ohio, he couldn't score better than third place. Although Kerry locked up the nomination in mid-March, Kucinich is continuing his campaign to keep his message going. Simultaneously, he also intends to seek re-election to Congress in 2004. FYI: He no longer seems interested in the NLP nomination. Follow the above link to our detailed page on Kucinich.

Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. (Virginia) Lyndon LaRouche

Frequent candidate and purported political cult leader Lyndon LaRouche, 81, was back for an eighth Presidential run in 2004. As in the past, he appeared on several state primary ballots. LaRouche, a college drop-out and self-described "world's leading economist," weaves a dizzying web of conspiracy theories -- cloaked in a swirl of historic truths and mistruths -- usually implicating Queen Elizabeth, British bankers, the Pope and the Jesuits, the Trilateral Commission, drug cartels, environmentalists, Jane Fonda, Ted Kennedy, George Bush, the CIA and FBI, Osama bin Laden, gays, Israel, the Clintons, Margaret Thatcher and many others. He started his career as a Trotskyist political organizer in the Socialist Workers Party in the 1960s, formed the now-defunct and ultra right-wing US Labor Party in the early 1970s after a violent break from the SWP ... before finally shifting his entire neo-fascist network into the Democratic Party by 1979. LaRouche was convicted and imprisoned for five years on felony fraud charges in the late 1980s related to the fundraising activities of his political organization -- although his supporters maintain he was a political prisoner unfairly prosecuted by vindictive federal government agents. LaRouche's old nemesis, the Anti Defamation League (ADL), has published various booklets over the years that identify LaRouche as anti-Semitic. LaRouche strongly denies he is anti-Semitic and notes that numerous Jewish individuals are leaders in his organization. He also strongly denies the "cult" allegations. In 2000, LaRouche captured just 124 votes (11th place) in the New Hampshire Democratic primary -- and blamed his poor showing on a conspiracy led by the New Hampshire Secretary of State. He also competed in numerous other 2000 primaries -- but generally finishing in the 1-4% range in each contest. Although he passed the required 15% needed to win delegates in the late season Arkansas primary (he won 22%), the DNC refused to award LaRouche any delegates because they ruled that he was "not a real Democrat." LaRouche sued the DNC -- but the federal court ruled that the Democratic Party had the legal right to deny awarding any delegates to LaRouche, as he was not an authentic Democratic candidate because of his fringe views. The DNC also notes that LaRouche -- as a convicted felon -- is not a registered Democrat (nor even a registered voter) and is also not eligible under party rules to be the nominee for this reason. For the same reason, party leaders are excluding him from the debates -- even though he qualified for federal matching funds and raised over $5 million as of fall 2003 (which placed him ahead of Clark, Kucinich, Braun, and Sharpton in the money hunt). However, of that amount, little remained unspent as the money quickly went out to finance his perpetual political network of offices, staffers and publications. He qualified for 2004 primary ballots in New Hampshire (10th place - 90 votes), DC (5th - 493 votes), Missouri (11th - 1,019 votes), Tennessee (last place - 280 votes), Virginia (8th - 1,042 votes), Oklahoma (last place - 689 votes), Louisiana (last place - 1% - 2,329 votes), Maryland (last place - 0.3% - 1,333 votes), and Texas (9th place - 1% - 6,854 votes). Additional related links are Executive Intelligence Review (LaRouche's online magazine), LaRouche Speaks (LaRouche's official PAC site), World LaRouche Youth Movement (LaRouche youth group), Schiller Institute (LaRouche's think tank), 21st Century Science & Technology (another LaRouche magazine), American Almanac: New Federalist Weekly (LaRouche's newspaper), Food for Peace (another LaRouche group), PublicEye.org: Lyndon LaRouche Network (negative), A Sampler of Quotes from Lyndon LaRouche (negative), RickRoss.com: LaRouche (negative; anti-cult site) and Conspire.com: "LaRouche Rocks!" (interview).

Glenn D. Leaverton (California)

Except for the fact that Leaverton filed paperwork with the FEC to run for President, no other info was known about this Democratic hopeful. There was never any sign of campaign activity from this hopeful.

R. Randy Lee (New York)

Randy Lee -- an attorney, homebuilder and real estate broker from Staten Island -- qualified for a spot on the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot (20th place - 15 votes). As a developer, Lee builds affordable housing units in the New York City area. "Affordable housing creates stability and gives people a stake in the community," he explained. In 2003, NYC Mayor Mike Bloomberg appointed Lee to serve on the Staten Island Growth Management Task Force. Lee also serves as chair of the Building Industry Association of NYC. His Presidential campaign was limited to the NH primary.

Robert H. Linnell (New Hampshire) Robert Linnell

Robert Linnell -- an 81-year-old retired college chemistry professor -- qualified for a spot on the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot (17th place - 49 votes). He ran for President largely to have a wider platform for letting people know the views he held on a wide range of topics. See his website -- linked above -- which consists of tons of thoughtful, researched op-ed articles he's written over the past few years. "I do not want people to vote for me. I want people to listen to my ideas," he explained. Linnell's campaign was limited to his participation in the NH primary.

Joe Lieberman US Senator Joseph I. "Joe" Lieberman (Connecticut)

Senator Joe Lieberman shot into the national spotlight as Al Gore's VP runningmate in 2000 -- with humor and energy -- and he used that recognition to launch his 2004 Presidential effort. Since the 2000 defeat in the closest Presidential election in US history, Lieberman re-established himself as a center-conservative Democrat. He formed his own leadership PAC in 2001 to raise money for fellow Democrats. Lieberman also traveled frequently to important primary states like California, New York, New Hampshire, Iowa and Florida -- while also cultivating his national support base within the Jewish community -- before formally jumping into the race. Since 2000, he's returned to some of his favorite issues: gun control, supporting President Bush's faith-based initiatives concept (while harshly criticizing Bush's energy and environmental policies), and denouncing the entertainment industry's marketing of sex and violence to children. Lieberman's high name recognition and large donor base initially placed him in the "first tier" of candidates. Some Dems are unhappy with Lieberman's strong support for President Bush on the War on Terrorism/Iraq War -- and like to describe as ideologically similar to a "Republican moderate." Others, however, noted that these could have been plusses for Lieberman in a general election race (a point he never reached), as he billd himself as the most centrist of the Democrat hopefuls. While early many national polls regularly placed Lieberman in first or second place for the nomination, his numbers faded throughout 2003. His fundraising lagged from the start, and he never really raised enough money to be competitive. In an effort to revive his bid, Lieberman launched a series of verbal shots at nearly all of his more liberal rivals. "Senator Lieberman is showing once again that his voice is only raised to attack other Democrats and not focus on the real issue here -- and that's the flaws of the Bush Administration," said a spokesman for Wes Clark in September 2003. In October 2003, Lieberman announced he was pulling out of the Iowa contest (traditionally dominated by liberal voters) and was going to mainly focus his efforts on contests in more centrist early states: New Hampshire, Arizona and Oklahoma. Although he rented an apartment and lived full-time in the state for two months, he placed fifth in New Hampshire. After that -- without enough money to any longer compete in Arizona and Oklahoma -- he made Delaware his final make-or-break state, but finished 40-points behind John Kerry there. He withdrew from the race the next day. Follow the above link to our detailed Lieberman page.

Steven P. Malloy (Wyoming)

Malloy filed FEC paperwork in 2001 declaring his "world wide" candidacy for President. In April 2003, he sent the FEC a letter "retracting" his candidacy.

Kenneth R. McFaddin (California)

Kenneth McFaddin reported to the FEC that he raised just $25 for his campaign, before he withdrew from the race in September 2002.

William "Bill" McGaughey (Minnesota) Bill McGaughey

Bill McGaughey -- a landlord and self-published author -- first tried seeking ballot access in South Carolina, but was disqualified. He later obtained a spot on the 2004 Louisiana primary ballot (5th place - 2% - 3,161 votes), spent five weeks campaigning in the state, and finished 700 votes ahead of Congressman Kucinich. McGaughey mainly stressed employment issues. He advocated "a new system of employer-specific tariffs to deal with the problem of job outsourcing" to foreign countries. He also wanted to raise the overtime penalty rate, create a system of national health insurance to decouple health care costs from employment, and adopt a shorter work week (4-day, 32-hour week). McGaughey was previously an unsuccessful candidate for the Independence Party's nomination for US Senate in 2002. After the LA primary, McGaughey ended his Presidential bid and posted a message endorsing Kerry.

Sherry A. Meadows (Texas)

Meadows briefly ran for President in 1996, before dropping out. Beyond that, no info is known about Meadows. No sign of any active 2004 campaign.

Mollenhour Grady Dean Mollenhour Jr. (New York)

Little is known about this Democratic hopeful -- except that he uses "Reverend" as his title on some campaign documents he filed (so, presumably, he's a minister of some sort). He also served in the US Army (1983-84), worked briefly in the Job Corps in the early 1980s, and holds a high school GED certificate. There was never any sign of campaign activity from this hopeful.

Edward T. "Ed" O'Donnell Jr. (New Hampshire) Ed O'Donnell

Perennial candidate Ed O'Donnell moved to New Hampshire and qualified for the 2004 Presidential primary ballot there as part of his latest White House campaign strategy. His Democratic run for President this year was designed to garner him some attention that, he hoped, he could have parlayed into making a visible Independent run for President in November 2004. "I don't need to win in New Hampshire. I just have to become an overnight sensation on January 27th or I'm finished [as an Independent candidate]," he explained. Well, it didn't work out well for him this time, as he finished 13th place with 79 votes. That ended his 2004 campaign. O'Donnell previously ran for President in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996 and 2000. During his 2000 run -- when he finished 16th place in the primary with just 35 votes -- he promised to slash the President's salary to $25,000 if elected (because, he said, that's what George Washington was paid). He also vowed to turn Camp David into an alcohol rehab facility. "I am physically fit. I'm a teetotaler. I don't smoke. I won't even use caffeine," said O'Donnell. He believed the police in the US are generally abusive to the public -- and said the police have a history of profiling and harrassing him personally. He advocated curing that problem through the use of "a Nuremberg-like trial ... about all police mistreatment of private citizens." He also supported terms limits for politicians, the media, religious leaders, etc. "Everyone in the media has to go, and I'm on record as saying that the greatest tyrants in society today are Brokaw, Jennings, Rather, Couric, and Russert," said O'Donnell. He also specifically wanted to remove Pope John Paul II and Rev. Billy Graham from any positions of public influence. He supported calling a constitutiona convention in Williamsburg, Virginia ("a very inspiring place") and wanted to ensure that a bunch of the delegates are "milk men and garbage men and maids and waitresses -- we don't want it to be an academic elitist group." He supported "total gun control" and is also opposed to knives, too. "Now I'm also asking if I were to speak before the National Academy of Sciences, I've got some requests for them. One, with all our scientific brilliance can we devise -- well first we're going to have a knife turn-in day as well as a gun turn-in day. I want every knife that can do harm to a human being turned in ... can our scientists design a kitchen utensil which will not do the damage that these knives that people stab [with] ... A gun turn-in day and a knife turn-in day and even if we get twenty to thirty percent of these out of circulation, that would help," he explained in an interview with the Dartmouth Free Press. Hey, he had a point (pun intended), as there's no Second Amendment right to own steak knives. But, let's get back to the media: "You have 54 wars going on right now, and the media is covering that up ... The national press hates me because I want them removed and essentially put in a Nuremberg-like trial." We almost forgot: he advocated cutting Medicare costs by having healthier people and less use of medicines. And -- if you don't agree -- he'd probably have "a Nuremberg-like trial" idea for you, too.

Fred Ogin Frederick E. "Fred" Ogin (Oregon)

Fred Ogin, 58, is a high school graduate and Vietnam War veteran. He previously filed paperwork to run for President in 1984, 1996 and 2000, but did not qualify for any primary ballots. The same thing happened again with his 2004 campaign. FYI: The picture is old, too, as he's been using it since his 1984 run. No other info is known about this candidate.

William "Bill" Pearman (Indiana) Bill Pearman

Retired US Air Force serviceman, former teacher and small businessman Bill Pearman planned to make a second run for President in 2004 as a Democrat, having made a failed bid for the Reform Party nomination in 2000. Pearman launched his second White House bid in 2001 -- but later emailed Politics1 in early 2002 to say he had dropped out. Then, in August 2003, he emailed us again to say he had reconsidered and decided to make another White House run after all. "Decided to run even if I don't raise enough money. Will just have to find ways to get my message out any way I can," he emailed. Then -- on his website -- he posted a message in December 2003 that he quit the race again because of his "inability to raise enough money to wage a serious campaign and the inability to gain national attention for my ideas." Pearman supported elimination of the national debt by 2026 (and short-term deficit reduction), changes to the tax code to make corporations pay more US taxes even if they move their corporate headquarters to off-shore locations, corporate tax credits to job creation, education reform, health care reform, and US energy independence. His main focus, however, was to reduce the role of special interests and money in US elections. Pearman subsequently quit the race and filed to run for Congress in the 2004 Indiana primary.

Fern Penna Fern Penna (New York)

From the bio on his site, Penna earned his money in the construction business as a real estate developer. By age 19, Penna says he made his "first million dollars in the construction business." Penna -- who these days describes himself as a business consultant -- has also been a local community activist on behalf of social programs for youth and seniors. As for issues, Penna promised to "provide a real homeland defense system, health care for Americans and secure Social Security for good ... and lower taxes." He said that his opposition to the Iraq War was what prompted him to run for President. One leading Iowa political columnist was amused to receive a call from Penna in mid-2003, announcing that he was planning a campaign trip to Dubuque -- which Penna kept pronouncing as "Duh-bucky." Penna -- a persistent campaigner -- qualified for spots on the 2004 New Hampshire (23rd place - 8 votes) and Missouri (11th place - 336 votes) primary ballots and in the New Mexico caucuses (8th place - 77 votes).

James J. Prattas (Hawaii) Prattas

Campaigning under the slogan of "Love is the Doorway In," Jim Prattas described himself as "a poor ignorant soul who is just an artist, healer and disabled combat Vietnam veteran living on a stipend ... [and] uneducated and ignorant a compared to most of my fellow citizens." His unusual campaign website was decorated with his original art works throughout the various pages. His autobiographic story -- from his 2000 campaign site -- told of near death experiences (including meeting God and seeing angels), meeting celebrities, his fights with the US military after being wounded in Vietnam, death threats against him by the Hawaiian Mafia, a plot by President G.H.W. Bush's friends to have him arrested when he wanted to challenge Bush in the 1992 race, his past use of marijuana, his divorce, and more. When he ran in 2000 as a Republican, he did not qualify for any primaries. In 2004, as a Democrat, the same thing happened again.

Robert Reich Former US Labor Secretary Robert B. "Bob" Reich (Massachusetts)

Robert Reich may be diminutive in stature, but he's a large advocate for the liberal wing of the Democratic Party. Before serving as President Clinton's Labor Secretary during the first term, Reich was a Harvard professor. He also served in other sub-cabinet posts during the Ford and Carter Administrations. The author of eight books, Reich particularly annoyed Clinton with his memoirs of his years as Labor Secretary -- as he accused Clinton of betraying liberal ideals. Since returning to Massachusetts, Reich became a Brandeis professor, wrote regular columns, and did weekly radio commentaries on public radio. Reich was also a late entrant into the 2002 gubernatorial contest -- but lost the primary (with a respectable showing). Reich floated the idea of making a White House run in 2004 if no other candidate adequately advanced a liberal agenda. Since then, however, he's disclaimed interest in the race in late 2002. "I have no plans at this stage for another run [for political office], but will continue to push for better jobs for more people, and do what I can to help progressive politics grow at the grass roots. My immediate and more mundane goal is to pay off our [2002] campaign debt," Reich wrote on his website in November 2002. He later endorsed John Kerry. Another related site is The American Prospect: Robert Reich (Reich's columns).

Adam Safran Adam Safran (California)

Safran's understated slogan was "An Everyday Guy for Everyday Americans." And, consistent with that theme, his campaign website posed the question: Could a regular guy become president? "I'm not rich, I live a pretty normal life and own a single-story house that I live in with my wonderful wife and three kids. Do I think I can win? Do you think you can win when you buy a lottery ticket each week or when you compete in a marathon against seasoned pros? Anything is possible. In America that has always been one of our most cherished dreams," answered Safran. He holds a college degree in journalism and works as a computer programmer. Safran, however, withdrew from the race in December 2003. "I've just become way too busy with my family, life and work to continue the ... campaign. In addition, I'm beginning to believe again that a true people's candidate may be emerging from the [Democratic] pack," he explained.

Ole Savior Oloveuse S. "Ole" Savior (Minnesota)

Ole Savior, an eccentric artist and poet, has been a frequent candidate in Minnesota over the years for many federal, state and local offices. He usually finishes around the back the of the pack -- but he keeps on running. His top three concerns were a "nuclear-free world, [ending] world hunger, and better education for all mankind." His favorite movie is The Terminator, his favorite TV show is X-Files and his favorite book is the Bible's Book of Revelations. If elected, he promises to "create a new and more peaceful world for the next generation of children." He filed FEC paperwork in late 2002 to make his first run for President -- but failed to qualify for any primary ballots.

Craig E. Sharp (Texas)

Craig Sharp, 42, has worked over the years as a substitute teacher, a radio station engineer and announcer and, currently, a computer manufacturing technician. He also holds a B.A. degree from University of Texas-El Paso (1990). He previously ran for President in 1996. Like in 1996, Sharp failed to qualify for any primary ballots.

Al Sharpton (New York) Al Sharpton

The controversial Rev. Al Sharpton stood out as one of the more flamboyant 2004 candidates. While he had no real chance of winning the nomination, he did grab attention from time to time in the debates with his publicity-seeking tactics and humorous soundbites. An avowed liberal, Sharpton dislikes the centrist wing of the party that -- he believes -- has undermined its traditional support for the poor and minorities. "I am running to take out the DLC, which I call the Democratic Leisure Class, because that's who it serves -- the leisure class and the wealthy," he explained. In recent years, Bill Bradley pursued his endorsement in 2000 and some of the NYC Mayoral hopefuls openly courted his backing in 2001. According to Time magazine, Sharpton saw the 2004 campaign as an opportunity for him to displace Rev. Jesse Jackson and "take on the mantle of black leadership in America." Sharpton's 2004 run for President was directly taken from Jackson's history (Jackson ran in 1984 and 1988). A flamboyant former provocateur, Sharpton first grabbed national headlines in the 1980s by defending alleged racist attack victim Tawanna Brawley (an incident later proven to be hoax). Today, Sharpton heads a civil rights organization entitled the National Action Network (NAN). He filed paperwork for his Presidential exploratory committee in January 2003. Sharpton started the race with a lot of enemies, including whites who perceive him as an anti-white racist, police officers whom he criticized repeated over the years, and the Jewish community (Sharpton has been blamed for rhetoric that incited street crowds in the early 1990s in two black-versus-Jewish community incidents in NYC that both ultimately escalated into bloodshed, riots and deaths). Sharpton worked in recent years to tone down his rhetoric, better his relationship with the Jewish community, and expand his coalition to include Hispanics (by getting involved on issues like Vieques). Sharpton came out with his campaign book -- Al on America -- in fall 2002, and extensively promoted it. Sharpton liked to say he is the "only Democrat in the race who opposes the death penalty" (which was true until Kucinich got in). Sharpton initially hinted in early 2003 that he would consider running as an Independent if he was unable to win the Democratic nomination in the primaries. By mid-2003, he shot down that possibility: "If I was interested in running as a third-party candidate, I would have done that from the beginning ... I hope to support the nominee, I hope to be the nominee, but I will not be running as a third party," he said on CNN. News of a pending IRS audit of Sharpton's personal financial records in Summer 2003 -- and stories about his debts -- also diverted some attention away from his campaign. By the end of 3Q 2003, he had raised just $283,000 -- the worst total of any Democrat in the race -- and had a remaining cash-on-hand balance of just $41,000. An investigative report by the liberal Village Voice newspaper in February 2004 showed that longtime Republican political consultant Roger Stone was actually the person running Sharpton's campaign -- and that Stone was using GOP donors to help finance Sharpton's NAN civil rights group to enable Sharpton to make his White House run. Sharpton acknowledged Stone was working for him, but equated it to Bill Clinton's on-and-off work in the mid-1990s with GOP consultant Dick Morris. With the exception of South Carolina's primary -- where Sharpton was third place with 10% -- he usually finished most primaries near the back of the pack in the low single digits. Even in his homestate of NY, he drew a paltry 10% -- much less than he scored in any of his past NY runs for office. In mid-March 2004 -- after John Kerry locked up the nomination -- Sharpton formally endorsed Kerry. However, Sharpton said he will continue his campaign to win some more delegates so he can have a say in the national platform. Follow the above link to our detailed page on Sharpton.

Vermin Supreme Vermin Supreme (Massachusetts)

We are not making this up: there was a guy is running for President in 2004 under the name "Vermin Supreme." In fact, he qualified for a spot -- with that name -- on the January 13, 2004 primary ballot in the District of Columbia (8th place - 144 votes). How did he pick his name? "All politicians are, in fact, vermin. I am the Vermin Supreme, therefore I am the most qualified candidate in this race ... Yes, I am a politician, that's my job. Of course, as a politician, I shall lie to you because I am a politician and have no reason not to," he wrote. His campaign theme: "Vermin Supreme represents many abstract emotionally charged buzzwords -- such as freedom, justice, law, order, liberty and democracy -- just to name a few." A large part of his platform relates to promoting better dental hygiene ("Stong Teeth for a Strong America"). To make sure the American people regularly brush and floss, he promises: "Warrantless random no knock dental inspections; Government issued toothpaste containing addictive yet harmless substances; Video surveillance through two way bathroom mirrors; Electronic tracking, moisture and motion sensor devices in all toothbrushes ... or even preventative dental maintenance detention facilities." Our favorite among his proposals: "Gene splicing to create a race of winged monkeys to act as tooth fairies." His other campaign promises include: "To do something about the weather ... Massive and arbitrary censorship of anything found offensive by an appointed truth and morality squad ... Making dangerous weapons available to anyone who wants them ... Polygraph, drug tests and loyalty oaths for all citizens, along with the issuance of citizen identity cards, radio transmitter implants and laser fingerprint tattoos to keep track of you and your children, for your protection ... Legalization of prostitution and gambling along with the promotion of professional sports, video arcades, and crack houses together with other mindless forms of diversion to help you take your mind off what's really going on ... To appoint lots of committees to look into all sorts of things ... To tax the bejeezus out of everything ... [and] Free pizza and beer for everybody." His campaign (which was limited to the DC primary) was clearly intended to be humorous, and Vermin used his campaign web site -- linked above -- to make lots of jokes.

Former Congressman James A. "Jim" Traficant Jr. (Ohio) Jim Traficant

Former maverick Congressman Jim Traficant is currently serving an eight-year prison sentence on federal bribery, racketeering, tax evasion and other corruption charges -- and he certainly wasn't available to out campaigning for President in 2004. That news, however, didn't deter fans of the zany Traficant -- best known for his bad clothes and hair (which turned out to a really bad wig) and the wild rants he formerly delivered in the US House each day (speeches that always ended with his trademark "Beam Me Up!" line). Traficant -- a colorful and populist former Sheriff -- beat federal racketeering charges once before in the 1980s by representing himself. If didn't work, however, when he tried that act again in 2002. He was convicted and subsequently expelled from Congress. He also lost for reelection in 2002 while campaigning from jail as an Independent candidate (but he still captured over 27,000 votes - 15%). Traficant briefly ran for President in 1988, touting himself as "The Rustbelt Candidate." Likewise, Ross Perot was interested in having "fair trader" Traficant as his VP runningmate in 1996 (Traficant wasn't interested) -- and another third party expressed an interest in nominating him for President in 2000 (again, no interest from the would-be candidate). The above link goes to what was the "Draft Jim Traficant for President in 2004" group that filed FEC paperwork in July 2003. Traficant clearly liked what the group was trying to do, as he signed the Statement of Candidacy form that the draft group filed with the FEC (which -- it seemed -- converted it from a draft effort to a regular, authorized campaign committee). After the group was unable to come close to its target goal of raising $100,000 by October 1, 2003, the group announced it was ceasing operations and returning the money collected thus far. The site, however, remains online to educate people on why they should view Traficant as a "political prisoner" of a corrupt federal government. Other related sites include Traficant.com (2002 official campaign site), James Traficant Newstrove (news database), FreeTraficant.com (support group), and Biographical Directory of the US Congress: Jim Traficant (government site).

Leonard D. "Denny" Talbow (Arizona)

L.D. Talbow was one of the many Democrats who qualified for the 2004 New Hampshire primary ballot. He finished in a tie there for dead last (23rd place - 8 votes) -- but it was still an improvement over the results from his last run for office. As a write-in candidate for Arizona Governor in 2002, he received just one vote (presumably his own vote). His campaign appeared to be limited to his participation in the NH primary.

Tom Vilsack Governor Thomas J. "Tom" Vilsack (Iowa)

While Governor Tom Vilsack kept seeing his name appear during 2002 on lists of potential Presidential hopefuls for 2004, he was preoccupied then with a competive re-election race (which he ended up winning by a comfortable margin). With Iowa as a base, Vilsack would have had an advantage going into the important Iowa Caucuses. However, Vilsack is not running and -- instead -- seemed content to simply preside as a leader over the Iowa Caucuses. However, unlike many of his Iowa colleagues, he did not endorse any P2004 candidate in the caucuses. He may harbor White House ambitions, but those will have to wait for a later date.

Evelyn Louise Vitullo Evelyn Louise Vitullo (Arizona)

Evelyn Vitullo is a mother of four grown children, a widow of a retired military officer, a community volunteer, and a Sunday School teacher. She is pro-life, wants to cut foreign aid, and eliminate wasteful governmental spending. Her top priorities were education reform and protecting Social Security. As in her 2000 run, Vitullo did not qualify for the ballot in any primary states in 2004.

Florence Walker (District of Columbia)

Beyond that fact that Florence Walker qualified for a spot on the 2004 DC Presidential Primary ballot as a "favorite son" candidate, nothing else is known about this hopeful. She finished 6th place in the DC primary with 246 votes. No campaign activity beyond the DC primary.

Lucian J. "Louie" Wojciechowski (California) Louie Wojciechowski

Louie Wojciechowski, 50, worked over the years as a journeyman carpenter, a security patrolman at a hospital complex, a city water worker, and a realtor. He also was active various Polish-American groups. He qualified for a spot on the DC Presidential Primary ballot, but finished last place (13th place - 37 votes) and unsuccessfully attempted to get on the primary ballots in West Virginia, South Dakota and other states.



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